The history of Indian painting art is as old as human history. Since the time when humans have immersed themselves in the lap of nature, they have tried to make their life happy and prosperous with the help of art making. And in the construction process, he created such works which helped to smooth his life. Perhaps this would have been the time when the fine feelings had awakened in the human mind. He carved silent emotions in the form of zigzag patterns made of impregnated stone tools and paintbrush on the reefs and caves. The softest and lively tableaux of his life are still preserved as human artifacts.
As far as the story of the origin and development of Indian painting is concerned, we find it as archaic as mankind. Because the Indian paintings in the series of history are very ancient. According to the modern era, these pictures are very ugly, but when we look in the mirror of the immediate era, we find no fault of any kind in these pictures. We often divide the growth and development of Indian painting into three parts.
Prehistoric period, Vedic period and pre-Buddhist period
We find many examples of prehistoric painting in caves. These paintings have all the characteristics of their time. The examples of Indian art have been found so far, there are a greater number of paintings of prehistoric times. In the paintings of this period, man has experienced the soft feelings of his mind, the motion of the game and the charming image of animals. Which he has carved on the hard surface of the caves with the strong stitch of the paintbrush made of linen. Thus, he has made the moments of joy and sadness of his struggle life immortal. Some mystics call this era as a rock era because the entire painting work of this time has been done on the rocks of the caves.
Vedic period painting
The beginning of the art of Vedic period goes back to the era of metal. Pictures of this era have been destroyed due to the changes in time. Photographs of this era are found somewhere. On whose basis something can be written. The best examples of this era are found in the caves “Ramgarh hill and Jogimara” of Surguja. We have to depend on Vedic literature such as Ramayana, Mahabharata, Gita, Vedas and Upanishads etc. for the story and information about the development of painting in Vedic period.
Early Buddhist painting
There does not seem to have been any significant development in the painting of pre-Buddhist period. Because it is mentioned that Lord Buddha himself had preached to the disciples to stay away from painting. It is from the literature of this period that we get a sense of the development of the then painting. The references to painting found in Buddhist literature should also be observed.
Chitralakshanam – In this we get a mention of the picture signs. In one chapter, the ratio of pictures of ordinary human beings in comparison to the proportions, gods, kings, and descriptions in terms of faces is found.
Shilp Shastra – It describes the technique of painting. Even today, this book is available in its original form.
Kamasutra – This is a well-known book of art of art, in which it describes the description of Shadang, the following is a brief outline –
Roop bheda – Identification of subtypes and their characteristics and relation to shadang, study of nature, building and characteristics of nature.
Pramman – Nowadays it is called (perspective). It describes the proportions, anatomy, and the difference of distant objects.
Bhav – The painter does not only produce the picture, but also studies the mind.
Lavanya – Along with the expressions in the picture, Lavanya should also have a plan, Lavanya means object beauty.
Lavanya – Whatever the picture is, but the viewer is not confused.
Varnika bhang – Under this principle, there is a reference to the correct use of paintbrush and colours.
We also get other books of this type. Which can prove helpful in studying the development of painting. Such as the Rama theory of Bharatmuni, the beauty principle of Chitrasutra Rupagoswami, etc.
This was the stage of the development of painting in which a free and fertile holiday was achieved for the feeling of beauty and for its creation. Due to the free atmosphere in this state, we still experience the power and speed in the primitive art today. The paintings of primitive art are endangered today, based on whatever the prehistoric era paintings and ancient art literature are available today, the development of art can be estimated. Some urban civilizations developed from this folk environment. He continues to cross the eras of history even today. In the area of painting, in addition to murals, tempera and fresco mediums, there was an operation of painting through exclusive mediums. The sophistication of the material led to an unprecedented advancement in technology. Due to which new art forms are also being born. Due to industrial products, many types of materials are being used. As a result, painting is on the path of continuous development.