Que. Write an essay on the origin and development of Rajasthani school of miniature painting.
How did the Rajasthani school come in to existence?
Ans. Rajasthani school of miniature painting flourished between 16th to early 19th century in the principalities of Rajasthan. Dr. A coomarswami The great scholar of Indian Art History discovered this school and introduced it as Rajput school. Later this school was called Rajasthani school. Rajasthan is divided in to parts by the aravali parvat,on the west are the jodhpur ,Bikaner and Jaisalmer to the east Mewar ,Bubdi ,kishangarh and kota .first of all the painting started from Mewar to Bundi and other parts of state.
It was inspired and influenced by Jain manuscripts painting of Gujrat along with Indian traditional art. Krishna leela is the most popular theme in the Rajasthani school. these topic have been derived from the literary work of Surdas .Tulsidas ,Meera bai Keshav das and Bihari lal also from Bhagvat Puran Ramayna and Geet Govinda etc.
Earlier this style was inspired by Vaishnava religion at that time the followers of Ramanuj like ballabhachaarya chaitany mahaprabhu etc. Had reached this religion to the climax. Important illustrations of Ramayna and Mahabharat of this school are also founded. Besides this theme later on painting have been done on romance ,general folk themes .illustration on Ragmala ,Barhmasa and nayk -nayika bheda,etc.Mewar ,Bubdi jodhpur , Bikaner ,kishan gharh and Jaipur are the sab school of Rajasthani school of minture painting .
Que. Describe the main characteristics or feature of Rajasthani school of miniature painting ?
Ans- following are the main feature of Rajasthani school of miniature painting.
Verity of themes–
There is a great verity in themes of Rajasthani paintings. themes are based on sessions (Brahmasa) music, hunting scenes religious themes like Ramayna, Mahabharta, love scenes and krishan and Radha have been depicted.
Colour scheme –
The main colour used are the primery colours (red blue and yellow) green, brown and white. other colours in use are golden and silver.
Females are wearing lehenga and choli with transparent dupatta, males are wearing turbun, jhabba , patka and pazama .
Facial feature –
Face of full of emotions and feelings are the according the moods. The face is elongated, oval and profile (side pose) the forehead is in inclining downwards, long and pointed nose swelling out lips and pointed chin.
Depiction of women –
The women of kishangarh school are very impressive Bani Thani of kishangarh school are world fame painting.
The lines are very fine powerful and rhythmic.
Depiction of nature –
Nature has also been depicted very beautifully, different types of trees, floral trees, mountains, water, springs and lakes have been depicted in very attractive manners.
Que.-The tradition and straight forward composition in the Rajasthani miniature paintings in which main figure stand out against a flat background in dark or bright colours.
Ans- the beautiful painting raja “Anirudh Singh hara” is the painting in which the tradition and straight forward composition of Rajasthani miniature painting is shown. In this painting main figures stand out against the flat background in bright or dark colors. This painting belongs to Bundi sub school and made by brilliant artist Utkal ram. The medium and technique used by him was tempera on paper.
This is the famous painting of Rajasthani school of miniature painting. In this painting the king is sitting on a white coloured and a well adorned horse. The background is made by black color in which the main figure stands out in white and red color. Here the king is holding the reins of horse by his both the hands. The king is well decorated with ornaments. The slightly bent neck of horse and profile face of king is giving beautiful look to the painting. The combination of White and red is also enhancing the beauty of painting. the florid horse is also looking nice. the king’s turban is made by yellow and brown color. Somewhere the painting shows Mughlai effect. The saddle of the horse is also well decorated. the front two legs of horse are uplifted in the air and backward legs are on the ground. The tail of the horse is made so nicely that the speed of horse can easily be estimated. The beautiful scabbard of king’s sword is also shown here. Hence the artists had been successful in depicting the painting.
Que. write an essay on the origin and development of the Pahari school of miniature painting?
How did the Pahari school come into the existence?
Ans. Guler is supposed to be the place of origin of Pahari school of miniature painting according to different scholars. some scholars consider Basohli as the origin of Pahari school of miniature painting.In 1780 A.D. the GULER KALAM was its peak. then entered Kngra and came to be known as KANGRA KALAM.Auranzeb was the cruel Mughal ruler. He hated painting and music .so most of the Mughal artists went to hills where they got shelter and there they invited s different new style of painting known as Pahari miniature painting .in the beginning, Pahari school flourished as a folk art, it came to be known as a Pahari kalam.Some scholar considers Guler as the palace of origin of Pahari school of art for many different reasons. firstly, the kings of Guler had friendly relation with Mughal emperors. There can be the possibilities that the artist from Guler might have shifted to Guler as it was nearer place for shelter and they might have renewed the folk art of Guler by adding some newness to it. some scholars consider that due to Aurangzeb’s cruelty, Mughal artists might have shifted to Basohali and according to them, Basohali which flourished under Raja Kripal Pal is the origin place of Pahari school.The oldest Kangra painting are connected with Guler where raja Goverdhan Chandra and his family has been depicted. after him raja Prakas Chandra and then raja Bhoop Singh came into power. then under raja Sansar Chand’s Protonege, finest paintings were created. the raja Sansar Chand’s period is considered to be the golden period of KANGARA KALAM.
Que. Describe the main characteristics or feature of Pahari school of miniature painting.
Ans. following the main characteristics or feature of Pahari school of miniature painting:
Description of women
Face of women is in profile and are round in shape. their nose is almost in line with forehead, eyes are long narrow and expressive like bows and the chin is sharp.
Depiction of line
Rhythmic lines have been depicted which are smooth in nature and are very fine and worth praising.
Mostly primary colours have been used. some colours are like pink, mauve, gray and green have also been used. Golden colours is used in large scale. The red coloured border have been used having an influence of Mughal style. The colours are strong and contrasting. in the garments and ornaments, golden and silver colours have been used. lightening has been shown through silver colour.
Choli, lehnga and transparent odhani have been worn by women. Males have been turbans and angarkhas. Krishna is always shown wearing yellow pitamber.
Depiction of nature
Trees, clouds jungles mountains foliage river aquatic birds etc. have been depicted beautifully. the rainy season and lightening effects have been nicely painted.
Inspite of having no proper perspective, the Pahari paintings appeal to us.Romantic scenesMany romantic scenes have been founded in Pahari style. Krishna symbolizes God (Nayak) and Radha symbolizes (heroine) in many of these paintings.
Que. Write a note on compositional arrangement of the Pahari school of miniature painting?
Ans- the compositional arrangement of Pahari school of miniature painting has been shown with great efforts and simplicity. Everything is well composed and well balanced in the Pahari painting.Nature scenes are very well composed as the trees clouds jungles etc. Have been depicted very beautifully. the land scape scenes are very beautiful .the lightening and rain scenes are very appealing. Inspite of having no proper perspective. the Pahari miniatures looks very attractive high horizon has been shown in the Basohli paintings. for examples, the Pahari paintings from Basohli school “Krishna with Gopies” has high horizon. he Yamuna river has been shown in the foreground which is covering very less area while the back ground which has been shown in orange colour is covering a very large area. The Pahari painting Krishna with Gopies and Rag Megha both appear to be well balanced and both are the examples of beautifully colourd compositions. All the figures and compositional elements are set according to the summary and balanced of the painting.
Que- Evaluate the aesthetic grandeur of miniature painting ‘Krishna with Gopi’s’ duly base on the aesthetic parameters.
Identify any relevant painting included in your course of study
comprising of the following features and explain it in that painting accordingly- ‘depiction of the Krishna Lila themes in the Pahari miniature paintings’
Ans.-The Pahari painting Krishna with Gopi’s belongs to Basholi school of art. it was painted during 1730.A.D. by artist “Manaku”. It was painted in tempera medium on paper. Krishna Lila themes have been depicted through this relevant painting in Pahari miniature paintings included in our course of study.
The theme of the painting has been selected from the “Geet Govind” series. Eight Gopies have been shown around Krishna who is in the center of the painting. they are aoring Krishna who is wearing a graceful loin cloth and is embracing two of the Gopies. One Gopi is kneeling before Krishna one is touching Krishna feet. One Gopi on the right side of the painting is standing with folded hands (seems to be Radha) with an attendant holding a round fan over Radha’ s head two Gopies o left side are talking to each other (one on the left hand is holding the chunari).
Krishna’s crown has feather on it. Gopies attractive ornaments and rich costumes of all the figures of the composition are enhancing the aesthetic grandeur of the painting. All faces have large lotus shape eyes and same line staring from forehead to nose have been shown beautifully hands and feet of gopis have been decorated in red colors. The composition has bright, bold and lustrous colors. The small portion of the Yamuna river in the foreground is also shown here.in the background on the horizon line is shown a lane of trees so same height and size. Some trees with different types of leaves are on the right side of the foreground the tree in the form of nature are complementing the beauty and devotion of the gopies. so, the painter is completely successful I depicting the subject matter of the painting and he also justifies the quality of aesthetic grandeur duly based on aesthetic parameters.