The modern art was initiated by Rabindranath Tagore which he learnt in Europe at the same the effects of the new experiments those were taking place in western art, spread in India. In this new style the artist started painting for his own pleasure and satisfaction.
The modern artist was more concerned for the interests of other and came up with new or metaphysical shape to the living or visible objects by their own typical imagination which they called as impressionism.
A major characteristic of contemporary Indian painting is that the technique method has acquired a new significance. form came to be regarded as separate entity. And with its increasing emphasis it subordinated the content in a work of art. form was not regarded as vehicle for content, in fact it was reverse. However, the means inspired and developed on superfluous elements made the technique complex and brought in a new aesthetic appeal. the artist had expanded a great deal on the visually level specifically in regard to the use of colour in the concept of design and structure, texture and the use unconventional materials. A painting stood or fell in terms of colour, composition and texture.
Contemporary Indian art has traveled a long way since the days of Ravi Verma, Abanindra Nath Tagore and his followers and even Amrita Shergil broadly followed the same pattern. almost every artist of repute began with one kind of representational or figurative art or the other tinged with impressionism, expressionism or post expressionism. Then though various stages of elimination and simplifications, through cubism, abstractions and a variety of expressionistic trends, the artist reached near non figurative and totally non figurative levels. the ‘pop’ and the ‘op’ the animal and art have really not caught the fancy of our artist except for very minor deviation. As a reaction to this journey into nothing there are three new major trends projection of the disturbed social unrest and instability with the problems of the man as the main theme ; an interest in Indian thought and subjective philosophy , manifested in the so called ‘Tantric’ paintings and in paintings with symbolical import ; and more than these , two trends in the new artist approaching the contradictory condition of dream or fantasy in reality.
More important of all this is the fact that nobody now talks of the conflict between form and content or technique and expression.
From 1947 literature, science and arts are developing new techniques in almost all branches of Autistic activities. The movement of modern painting originated in Bombay during the year 1947 A.D. and has spared to all parts of India. Modern artists represent nature and life by means of slenderized symbols.
Abnindra Nath Tagore, who painted highly expressive paintings in the wash and tempera techniques, is the illustrious leader of what is known as the Indian renaissance, popularity termed the Bengal school of painting. A painting which is called the “journey’s end “is a symbolic painting that reaches beyond the explicit pictorial elements of the work.
The crouching, gasping camel set against an arid desert in the twilight hours has a relevance to life in general.
Jaiminy Roy was a contemporary artist. he was more than anyone else. Sought an entirely different path of expression. Which had a tremendous impact on subsequent painters deeply inspired by the Bengal folk tradition. His images and ideas in his paintings are direct, singularly stylized and conceived in emphatic flat space and strong lines.
Gagnendra Nath Tagore shared very much with the painters of the Indian renaissance. but he like the distinguished poet- painter Rabindra Nath Tagore was an individualist of an extra ordinary order. His paintings have something considerably common with cubist approach with as in his fantastic study of the Magician.
TECHNIQUES AND TRENDS OF INDIAN ART
Artist’s approach to painting and the style he chooses depends on his own personality and on the influence of the times in which he lives. some of the techniques of paintings are explained as under.
Graffito is a technique of wall decor, its drawing or writing scratched on a wall or similar surface produced by layers of plasters tinted in contrasting colours to a moistened surface or in ceramics the top layers are scratched with a pointed instrument to disclose the different colours of the plaster which lies below it.
2.OIL PAINTING –
oil paints are pigments mixed with linseed oil to make them sticky and workable oil colour. it dries very slowly the colour is mixed with turpentine oil to the dry colour faster. And the technique is dark to lighter.
3.WATER COLOR –
water colours are applied on a paper (or tinted) transparent wash. It is a very difficult very medium to handle as the artist must paint quickly. technique is lighter shade to darker shade.
4. WASH TECHNIQUE –
It is also a water colour painting with same technique but gives a wash to the painting place(paper) many times and every time same colour is to be applied. after 10 to 15 wash paintings gives a natural effect lighter shades to the darker shade of colour is applied then thin lines are drawn with same dark shade.
5.TEMPERA PAINITING –
it is a permanent fast drying painting medium consisted of coloured pigment with a water-soluble binder medium usually fresh egg yolk or any glue. tempera also refers to the painting done in this medium. Tempera painting are very long lasting.
Fresco painting are those painting which were on done walls. The great masterpieces are Ajanta cave paintings, Bagh caves and “sittanvassal” caves of (pdukkotti). A fresco means “fresh”. it is the most permanent form of wall decoration. Paint is applied to the fresh plaster but not on the dry plaster.
7. MURAL –
They are also wall size paintings but fixed on a wall.
8. ETCHING –
Etching is a method of reproducing an original picture. It is traditionally the process of using strong acid to cut in to the unprotected part of a metal surface to create a design in relief in the metal. It is a liner technique that belongs to the graphic art rather than painting.
Mosaic is the art creating image with an assemblage of small pieces of coloured glass, stone, or other materials. It is a technique of decorative art or interior decoration. Most mosaics are made of small, flat, roughly, square, pieces of stone or glass of different colours, knows as tesserae.
10. GOUACHE –
Gouache is an opaque watercolor or type of a paint consisting of pigment, a binding agent (usually gum Arabic). It also refers to painting that use this opaque method. It tends to dry in to lighter colour then it appeared, when wet.
11. PASTEL –
Pastel are sticks of dry powdered colour mixed with oil gum or wax etc. The colour effect of pastels is closer to the natural dry pigments.
12. GLASS PAINTING –
Painting done on glass with synthetic colours or waterproof colours is called glass painting.
13. COLLAGE –
This is known as mix media, even some time things can be pasted or stock with any material on surface.
14. BURNING TECHNIQUE OF PAINTING –
This is a new technique of painting which can be done on a sheet of plywood, etc. To burn them and give impression on it.