The modern art was initiated by Rabindranath Tagore which he learnt in Europe .at the same the effects of the new experiments those were taking place in western art, spread in India.in this new style the artist started painting for his own pleasure and satisfaction. the modern artist was more concerned for the interests of other and came up with new or metaphysical shape to the living or visible objects by their own typical imagination which they called as impressionism.
A major characteristic of contemporary Indian painting is that the technique method has acquired a new significance. form came to be regarded as separate entity. And with its increasing emphasis it subordinated the content in a work of art. form was not regarded as vehicle for content, in fact it was reverse. However, the means inspired and developed on superfluous elements made the technique complex and brought in a new aesthetic appeal. the artist had expanded a great deal on the visually level specifically in regard to the use of colour in the concept of design and structure, texture and the use unconventional materials. A painting stood or fell in terms of colour, composition and texture.
Contemporary Indian art has traveled a long way since the days of Ravi Verma, Abanindra Nath Tagore and his followers and even Amrita Shergil broadly followed the same pattern. almost every artist of repute began with one kind of representational or figurative art or the other tinged with impressionism, expressionism or post expressionism. Then though various stages of elimination and simplifications, through cubism, abstractions and a variety of expressionistic trends, the artist reached near non figurative and totally non figurative levels. the ‘pop’ and the ‘op’ the animal and art have really not caught the fancy of our artist except for very minor deviation. As a reaction to this journey into nothing there are three new major trends projection of the disturbed social unrest and instability with the problems of the man as the main theme ; an interest in Indian thought and subjective philosophy , manifested in the so called ‘Tantric’ paintings and in paintings with symbolical import ; and more than these , two trends in the new artist approaching the contradictory condition of dream or fantasy in reality.
More important of all this is the fact that nobody now talks of the conflict between form and content or technique and expression.
From 1947 literature, science and arts are developing new techniques in almost all branches of Autistic activities. The movement of modern painting originated in Bombay during the year 1947 A.D. and has spared to all parts of India. Modern artists represent nature and life by means of slenderized symbols. Abnindra Nath Tagore, who painted highly expressive paintings in the wash and tempera techniques, is the illustrious leader of what is known as the Indian renaissance, popularity termed the Bengal school of painting. A painting which is called the “journey’s end “is a symbolic painting that reaches beyond the explicit pictorial elements of the work. The crouching, gasping camel set against an arid desert in the twilight hours has a relevance to life in general. Jaiminy Roy was a contemporary artist. he was more than anyone else. Sought an entirely different path of expression. Which had a tremendous impact on subsequent painters deeply inspired by the Bengal folk tradition. His images and ideas in his paintings are direct, singularly stylised and conceived in emphatic flat space and strong lines. Gagnendra Nath Tagore Shared very much with the painters of the Indian renaissance. but he like the distinguished poet- painter Rabindra Nath Tagore was an individualist of an extra ordinary order. His paintings have something considerably common with cubist approach with as in his fantastic study of the Magician.
TECHNIQUES AND TRENDS OF INDIAN ART
Artist’s approach to painting and the style he chooses depends on his own personality and on the influence of the times in which he lives. some of the techniques of paintings are explained as under.
1.GRAFFITO – Graffito is a technique of wall decor, its drawing or writing scratched on a wall or similar surface produced by layers of plasters tinted in contrasting colours to a moistened surface or in ceramics the top layers are scratched with a pointed instrument to disclose the different colours of the plaster which lies below it.
2.OIL PAINTING– oil paints are pigments mixed with linseed oil to make them sticky and workable oil colour. it dries very slowly the colour is mixed with turpentine oil to the dry colour faster. And the technique is dark to lighter.
3.WATER COLOR– water colours are applied on a paper (or tinted) transparent wash. It is a very difficult very medium to handle as the artist must paint quickly. technique is lighter shade to darker shade.
4. WASH TECHNIQUE– It is also a water colour painting with same technique but gives a wash to the painting place(paper) many times and every time same colour is to be applied. after 10 to 15 wash paintings gives a natural effect lighter shades to the darker shade of colour is applied then thin lines are drawn with same dark shade.
5.TEMPERA PAINITING – it is a permanent fast drying painting medium consisted of coloured pigment with a water-soluble binder medium usually fresh egg yolk or any glue. tempera also refers to the painting done in this medium. Tempera painting are very long lasting.
6.FRESCO – Fresco painting are those painting which were on done walls. The great masterpieces are Ajanta cave paintings, Bagh caves and “sittanvassal” caves of (pdukkotti). A fresco means “fresh”. it is the most permanent form of wall decoration. Paint is applied to the fresh plaster but not on the dry plaster.
7. MURAL – They are also wall size paintings but fixed on a wall.
8. ETCHING – Etching is a method of reproducing an original picture. It is traditionally the process of using strong acid to cut in to the unprotected part of a metal surface to create a design in relief in the metal. It is a liner technique that belongs to the graphic art rather than painting.
9.MOSAIC- Mosaic is the art creating image with an assemblage of small pieces of coloured glass, stone, or other materials. It is a technique of decorative art or interior decoration. Most mosaics are made of small, flat, roughly, square, pieces of stone or glass of different colours, knows as tesserae.
10. GOUACHE – Gouache is an opaque watercolor or type of a paint consisting of pigment, a binding agent (usually gum Arabic). It also refers to painting that use this opaque method. It tends to dry in to lighter colour then it appeared, when wet.
11. PASTEL – Pastel are sticks of dry powdered colour mixed with oil gum or wax etc. The colour effect of pastels is closer to the natural dry pigments.
12. GLASS PAINTING – Painting done on glass with synthetic colours or waterproof colours is called glass painting.
13. COLLAGE – This is known as mix media, even some time things can be pasted or stock with any material on surface.
14. BURNING TECHNIQUE OF PAINTING – This is a new technique of painting which can be done on a sheet of plywood, etc. To burn them and give impression on it.
Rama Vanquishing the pride of ocean
SUBJECT MATTER– Thus painting is based on an episode of Balmikis Ramayana. After preparing his forces for invading Lanka to recover Sita Ram was held up by the sea and his army was separated from Lanka. attempts to build a bridge by were failed by the angry ocean. Rama threatened that the “Varuna” that he would destroy him if he didn’t allow the bridge to build. Only that this force could cross the ocean to reach Lanka.
Description –This is the famous mythological painting of Raja Ravi Verma, painted on an important episode of Valmiki Ramayana. He successfully seized this moment and paints its oil on canvas. This painting shows the Rama’s anger at the ocean for his non-cooperation to give the way for Lanka. Rama wanted to construct a temporary bridge over the ocean to reach Lanka with his force for bringing back his wife Sita from Ravana custody. Rama threatened “Varuna” god of water that he was able to dry the ocean from his bow and arrow. Varuna along with his wife speedily came forward and requested Rama not to dry the ocean. Then he allowed angry Rama to build a bridge on the ocean. This is a realistic painting with western colour treatment. The strong built of Rama is shown semi-nude in his fluttering dhoti which depicts the strength of the wind blowing from the ocean. The sky is painted in dark colour. The flow of sea wave is painted as they are striking back from heavy sea rocks. The rocks shown in the foreground in dark brown colour brown blue yellow and peach colour are prominent in this composition. now it is the collection of “chitrshala” Mysore.
Human Values –
@ Humility, ability to take and execute tough decisions
@ Mother and child- mother’s unconditional love, responsibility and care for children.
@ Submission to the destiny and god’s will, sobriety
Description in 30 words – This famous painting of Raja Ravi Verma taken from Ramayana, displays Rama’s anger at the ocean for his non co-operation to give the way to Lanka. See the anger of Rama, Varuna has provided the way.
Raja Ravi Verma
Raja Ravi Verma is the most popular artist of Hindus because the oleo graphs of is god and goddesses are worshiped in millions of homes. He is known as the introducer of new medium ‘oil on canvas’ in India. He was born on April 29,1848 in a small village killamanoor of Kerala state in a royal family. The village killamanoor was granted to his family in perpetuity by Maharaj of Travancore in recognition of services rendered by his ancestors. He had inborn talent of art. At the age of 14, he was sent to Maharaj of Travancore Ayilyam Tirunal to present three miniatures paintings. He recognized his talent and gave him a room in a palace for learning traditional art of Thanjavour from the palace painter Rama swami Naidu. Later on, he learnt European art from Theodor Jonson, a British painter. He painted Indian themes in European style based on great Hindu epics Ramayana and Mahabharata. His numerous portraits and composition are also highly realistic and famous. He used beautiful south Indian women as his model for his paintings. In most of the paintings his elder daughter was his model. His famous works are ‘Ravana and Jatayu’, ‘ram vanquishing the pride of the ocean’, Shri Krishna and Balram etc. art historians and critics recognized his paintings as imitation of European art for being too dramatic in nature. They also disliked his idea of using models for depicting deities because it has reduced their level to mortal human beings.
Mother and Child
SUBJECT MATTER– This painting depicts a mother holding her child. The subject matter matches totally with the title of the painting.
Description – This Water colour tempera of mother and child was done by famous artist Jamini Roy from Bengal in 1930.In this painting, a standing mother is holding her naked child with left hand on her left waist, both of them have fish shaped open eyes bold eyebrows. The shape of their face looks like a cup and has cool and calm expressions of love. They are decorated perfectly with white colour. mother’s right-hand palm is red. She is wearing brown saree of green border decorated with black lines. On the left lower part of this vertical work, a flowering stem of the plant is shown. The final decoration done in bold lines is very sharp. Which makes whole composition very rhythmic and attractive. Perfect use of vermilion, yellow ochre brown green blue black and white closures is giving extra look to this folk type painting this work resembles with Kali ghat pat works now it is the collection of national gallery of modern art at New Delhi.
Human Values –
@ Mother’s unconditional Love
@ Responsibility and care for children
Description in 30 words – It’s a tempera painting by Jaimini Roy Showing a standing Mother wearing a traditional saree his holding her naked child with left hand on her left waist. whole composition is reflecting “kalighat pat work’.
Jamini Roy was the one of the painters of 20 century whose style of painting always remind us that modernity does not mean to go away from our great tradition of art and culture. Art was mission for him. He was born in 1887 at Beliator village in Bankura district of west Bengal in a middle-class family. He enrolled himself in the government college of art and craft, Calcutta in 1903 under Abanindra Nath Tagore. After completing his education, he did not like to work either in traditional style of Bengal school or in European impressionist style.
Finally, his painting own international name and fame. Jamini roy’s style has unique novelty and modernity along with traditionism. Around mid-1930’s he left making paintings on canvas. He used cloth, woods, even mats coated with lime as painting surfaces and painted with natural colours. He painted themes from Ramayana, Radha-Krishna, Jesus Christ and daily life of rural Bengalis and Santhals. The government of India awarded him ‘Padma Bhushan’ in 1955.
SUBJECT MATTER – This is one of the painting from Mother Teresa series by the artist .in his own words ‘she was modern Madonna who embraced the poor and destitute as her own for she is a timeless figure. I will never get tired of painting her.
Description – Mother Teresa is the well-known personality of the world. She is famous for his care, devotion and love for the orphan and destitute. Husain painted this saintly woman in his style in oil on canvas in1988. Husain divided the whole painting in three vertical parts by two conical pillars of yellow and light brown colours. The central portion is larger than the left and right ones. in the left side, Mother Teresa is shown in sitting posture. a child completely nude is shown in her lap in yellow ochre colour. mother is wearing yellow Saree with blue border in a very special style of catholic churches. in this painting Husain painted her face featureless in dark tone. In the middle portion, two sisters or devotees of mother also having featureless dark faces dressed up like mother are shown in white sarees one has raised her hands in blessing modes. a reclining male figure in Indian red colour is lying in sister’s lap cornering the whole space of canvas from left to right. His left leg is also in mother’s lap an attendant is touching his hand. The white veil of one of the sisters is shown extended toward the right portion. Most of the colour look flat but the vibration of light and dark tone is magically visible. Lines are bold, sharp and full of expression. Basically, this painting is Husain’s gratitude to her nonparallel motherhood. Now it is a collection of national gallery of modern art, new Delhi.
Human Values –
@ Care for the poor and destitute
@ service before self- selflessness
@empathy to reach out to the needy and work for them
Description in 30 words – This oil painting by M.F Hussein is divided into three parts shows Mother Teresa yellow sitting with child in first part a helpless man in lap of two nurses in red at center an attendant touching his hand is shown in third part.
M. F. Husain
Maqbool Fida Husain was a prolific painter of contemporary Indian art. He, born in Pandharpur, Maharashtra in 1915, had the brief stint at the Indore school of art though he had no formal education his works have been exhibited all over the world. He was an extraordinary genius and versatile artist who received ‘Padmashree’ in 1968,”padmabhushan” in 1973 and ‘Padma Vibhushan’ in 1989.he has painted and sketched in oil , acrylic, water colour, charcoal etc. he painted horses social life ,Ramayana and Mahabharata, Buddha’s life, Bangladesh war, Madhuri Dixit, Madonna etc. he painted women specially with a mixture of poetry and intensity of art. He started his career as a burner painter of cinema when he migrates to Mumbai in 1936. There, he joined as a member of ‘progressive artist group’ in 1947 an exhibited his painting first time in 1950. He had much creative energy to paint everything in his own style. He usually transformed something, he heard, anything he read, everything he saw in his painting. His burner painting experiences gave him confidence to handle huge spaces for painting. In a multifaceted approached, he had gone on from film to still photography, from architecture to “sculpted furniture, from poster to tapestry, from toy to jewellery. A golden era in modern Indian art ended on June 9, 2011 at the royal Brampton hospital in London but he will remain with us forever in his art work to guide and inspire.
SUBJECT MATTER– The painting is based on social evil of dowry and bride burning plaguing our society from the times memorial.
Description – The vulture is an oil canvas, painted by “Samikshavad” painter Kamlesh Dutt in1980. The subject of the painting is the devil of dowry system and female persecution which is depicted in the sarcastic manner by the artist. Sense of insecurity, pain and helplessness in woman are depicted in a very effective manner. This painting shows how the dignity and decorum of a female is being crushed in a female dominating society. this shows the miserable scenario of our society where a female is Burt alive, killed or hanged for a dowry.
The background of a painting is of a dark room in which a young lady is seen hanging from the ceiling and burning cider is placed below her feet. A vulture is seen sitting on arable with her jewellery box and trying to snatch his chain with his beak the vulture and background is painted in the shade of blue and lady is wearing pink colour blouse and a white cloth draped on her body below waist till her knees. Her hands being behind her body are not seen. her naval is shown prominently niche is painted in the upper right portion of background. Her body appears lifeless with no expression on her face. On the left portion of the painting a part of a “kalash with Amrapallava” and a swastika symbol in white color is also seen. vulture here symbolizes male dominated patriarchal society which always tries to suppress the female counter part. this painting gives message to our society. This painting is collection of national gallery of modern art, new Delhi.
Human Values –
@ Abolish dowry
@greed is a curse
@ Put an end to social evil related to girl child for a better society
Description in 30 words – Is oil on canvas by Kamlesh Dutt, he has shown the devil of dowry system and female persecution. Painter shows a lady hanging from ceiling and a vulture snatching her chain.
Kamlesh Dutt Pandey
Kamlesh Dutt is a scholar, educationist, writer and painter of his time. He was the follower of “sameekhshabadi” art movement for which they gathered inspiration from Indian culture and philosophy. “sameekhshbad”is the first indigenous art movement in modern India started in 1974. This art movement was started by Prof. Ramchandra Shukla (1925-2016), an eminent painter, art critic, educationist and writer. He was H.O.D Painting, faculty of visual arts, Bananas Hindu University, Varanasi.
These painters are motivated by day to day happenings and are sensitive to political and social scenario in which they live. Its basic purpose is to supervise the role of art so that it can inspire, educate and awaken people for a better life and style. The social, political and economic problem of India so depressing. Life is becoming insecure and helpless. Poverty, caste system, dowry system, gambling and drinking are at heights. They paint on such subjects in symbolic and satirical language. Never before satire is used as an important way of doing painting which awaken people to fight against the evils of the society. “sameekshabadi” artist are R.N. Mishra, S.K. Singh, R.S. Dhir , V.P. Mishra, G.M. Chaturvedi and Bala Dutt Pandey etc. he was rewarded for his research work on “Bhartiya kala mein nari chitran”.
SUBJECT MATTER –The whole picture represents an actual setting of a village household. The women are sitting and grinding Haldi in traditional way.
Description – Haldi Grinders made by Amrita Shergill due to many reasons. The great artist has done this painting in the medium Acrylic/ oil Painting on canvas. The painting belongs to the time periods 1940 A.D. And was done in size 76.5 cm 102 cm. its courtesy is national Gallery of modern Art at new Delhi. In this painting she has used her favourite colours like red yellow green brown etc. which fill a new visual reality in the painting. The painting has deep sense of melancholy that finds expressions in the pensive faces of the figure. in this painting a rural scene has been shown. the heads of these figure are covered with veils. The three ladies are grinding Haldi. If we see minutely, one more female figure other than the three have been shown behind a dominating tree in the foreground on the left side of the painting, on the right side the second lady’s back has been shown only and her back is supported by another tree on right side of the painting. While the third lady’s face is visible and she is on the left side ahead the tree. Amrita Shergill has depicted the ladies with dark complexion. she has also shown the unhappy sad dejected poor and starving women in such an expressive way. So, this painting has many good qualities in it to be liked by everyone.
Human values –
@ Sobriety – the girls are sober and still look beautiful
@ Submission to the destiny and gods will
Description in 30 words – This oil painting was painted by Amrita Sher gill. This painting is a very honest portrayal of a domestic Indian House hold .it shows two rural women grinding turmeric by stone grinder along with a helping girl.
Amrita Shergil was one of the most impressive and genius artists of pre independence era. She was born on January 30, 1913 in Budapest, Hungary. Her father Sardar Umarov Singh was a Sikh scholar in Sanskrit and her mother a Hungarian singer. She studied art at a famous art school, the Ecole national des beaux arts, Pairs under Lucien Simon. she was deeply influenced by European post-impressionist painters Paul Cezanne, Paul gauging etc. She returned to India in 1934 and travelled Indian art sites Ajanta, Ellora and far south for study purpose. She also studied Indian art miniatures. Her first show was in Shimla in 1935 and then followed by at Delhi, Bombay, Hyderabad, Allahabad etc. her work reflects the strong union of western and Indian art. We do not find sharp lines in her paintings but lines are created by juxtaposition of colours. Her paintings reflect the charming idleness and dramatic nature. The down faces, down caste eyes, simple appearance and helpless hand gesture mirror the uncertain future of Indians. She also worked on nude masses. she made about forty paintings in oil till her death at the age of 29, December 5 1941 at Lahore. Her painting has been declared as national treasure by the government of India and are in collection of national gallery of modern art New Delhi.
Triumph of labor
SUBJECT MATTER – The monument is symbolic of human spirit that wins over hardships with united labour.it is brilliant study of four human figures with rippling muscles ,their personal moment of intense physical effort, captured for the world to see and appreciate their daily sweat and labour for livelihood .the sculpture is the focal point of May day celebrations as the first one was celebrated here.
Description – This is an extraordinarily realistic bronze sculptures made by Devi Prasad Roy Chaudhary, a famous artist of Bengal school. The subject matter of this sculptures is taken from the life of the common man of India. In this composition, the artist has depicted ‘triumph of labour’ which means, one remains alive and progressive in unity four laborers are shown busy in a moving massive block with the help of wooden log by means of putting their maximum efforts in some hilly area. These laborers are carved in perfect anatomical body balance. this very strong muscles mirror their strength and capability. they all are in semi-nude and their lively action are depicted dynamic mobility of this statue. now, it is a collection of modern art gallery new Delhi.
Human Values –
@ Dignity of labour
@Teamwork and Coordination
He was born in1899 in a jamadar family at Tajhat (now in Bangladesh), RANGPUR District Bengal. He had exceptional talent in drawing, painting and clay modelling by birth. His father Uma Prasad Roy Choudhry took him to Abanindranath Tagore where he learned drawing and painting. As Abanindranath gave absolute freedom to his students, he also allowed Devi Prasad to evolve his own way. He learned life drawing and portraiture from Mr.Boiess, an Italian painter in western technique. Meanwhile he joined the studio of Hiramon Roy Chaudhary and did modelling under his guidance. He started his work as a freelance artist and soon occupied a leading position among noted painters and sculptors of his time.at the age of twenty-five, he made his father’s clay sculpture which is treated as the super example of impressionist style till now. in 1929, he was appointed as the principal of government school of art, Madras. During his three decades of stay in madras, he did his outstanding works in painting and sculpture. He was indeed a versatile genius. ‘triumph of labour’ installed at madras beach in 1954 and ‘martyrs’ memorial’ in Patna are his unparalleled and outstanding outdoor sculptures in bronze. He was master of anatomy an expressed himself in plaster, bronze and marble also. He was a real devotee of art and his worldly affairs were managed by his wife Charulata. He was the first chairman of Lalit Kala academy, new Delhi. He was elected as president and director of UNESCO art seminar held in Tokyo. The government of India Honoured him with’ Padma Bhushan’ in 1958.
SUBJECT MATTER– Santhal family is a free-standing outdoor sculpture. It is a depiction of a tribal peasant family a man, a woman, a child and a dog.
Description – Santhal family is the major outdoor free-standing sculpture, made of cement and concrete. It is a rough textured composition of Santhal couple with a child and a dog .it reflects the Ram Kinker’s feeling and concern for the simplicity of the Santhal family. This work has the tremendous energy and love of a movement. The figures and forms are naturalistic, dynamic and earthy. It represents the internal emotion of Santhal family that is moving towards the new destination after leaving their home in search of livelihood with hope and aspiration this sculpture is installed on the road side in Kala- Bhavana Shanti Niketan and appears as if it is in pace with every movement of the road and is also matching with the static peace of the environment simultaneously.
Human Values –
@ Family as a unit,
@Practice family values of togetherness and faithfulness
Ram Kinker Baij
Ramkinker Baij was the eccentric genius of Santi Niketan. He revitalized Indian sculpture and gave it a new dimension in the period of the of transition from a traditional to a modern art. He developed his own individual style in the field of sculpture and painting both. Ramkinker was born in a village of Bankura district in west Bengal in 1910. Shree Ramanand Chatterjee, a famous writer and editor of ‘modern review’ marked his talent, when he visited Ramkinker’s village. He recommended him to Gurudeva Rabindranath and the boy Ramkinker became a student of art at Santi Niketan in 1925 under the guidance of Nandlal Bose. After completing his studies, he joined as a faculty member of ‘kala bhavana’. He had lived at Santi Niketan for over 37 years. His individuality and originality and working style proved him out as one of the true modern sculptors. Each work of Ramkinker radiate his latent energy. His figure and forms are dynamic and energetic. his approach towards handling the subject is starting from naturalistic, romantic to completely abstract. As a sculptor, he used cement, concrete, stone and plaster which was easily available. In painting, he worked oil tempera and water color. The Santhal living around Santi Niketan were his alive models. One of his major stonework’s 32 feet high ‘yaksh and yakshini’ installed at the main entrance of reserve bank of India, new Delhi is reflecting his creative calibre.
SUBJECT MATTER – Contemporary socio- economic ills that plague India. themes of much of Sehgal’s works primarily revolved around the importance of individual freedom and human dignity and his response to the errors of political violence.
Description – In 1958 the sculpture ‘cries un-heard’ was awarded president of India’s ‘Gold plaque’ by Lalit kala academy, new Delhi. this is a large size bronze statue done by well-known sculptor, Amarnath Sehgal in 1958. This is a symbolic work in which three nude figures of a family are standing in a deep anguish mood. they have glooming faces full of agony and distress. All the three elongated figures of man, woman and child have hollow faces and their hands raised towards the sky in the helpless position. the right hand of child is up while his left hand is shown in down posture. man, and child are looking up but woman is looking down. they all are asking for the help from almighty god because no one is ready to hear their protest in our society. the theme of this sculpture shows the injustice and exploitation done by rich and powerful people. they are exploiting the weaker section of the society from long time. now it is a collection of national gallery modern art, New Delhi.
Human Values –
@ Care for poor and destitute,
@Need for economic equality in society so that basic needs are met.
Amarnath Sehgal is a multi-talented creative personality. He is an engineer, a philosopher a poet and a sculptor. He was born on February 5, 1922 at Cambellpur, at POK (Pakistan). Internationally reputed sculptor, Sehgal is basically a science graduate i.e. BSc. (distinction in physics) the he studied industrial chemistry from Banaras Hindu university. He started his career as an engineer at Lahore. art is his inborn talent. He started learning art privately at Lahore school of fine arts, popularly known as ‘Sanyal’s’ studio in 1945 where he took a decision to choose art as his profession. After partition, he migrated to India and started working as freelance artist. In 1949, he went to USA ant took master degree in art education from New York university.
He is an expressionist, evocative and emotive sculptor. He says that the work of an artist should act as a bridge between himself and society. ‘anguished cries’, ‘rape’, ‘hunger’ and ‘cries unheard’ are his masterpiece works in bronze. His monumental sculptures dedicated to scientific achievements are ‘conquest of moon’ in Washington D.C. he wants to spread the message of peace, love and compassion through this art.
SUBJECT MATTER– A modern abstract sculpture of Hindu god Ganesh.
Description – Ganesha is one of the best frontal sculptures of P. V. Jankiram. this is the finest work of his repose work, done in oxidized copper sheets and wires. in this creation Ganesa is shown in six hands. he is playing sitar with his upper two hands while his other four hands are holding Shankha, Gada, Padma and Ankush in traditional style. He is wearing a spiritual crown and a halloo around is head. His face expression has divine look. he has large ears. his face and broad trunk have been designed on the same copper sheets. The posture of his both legs indicates that he is in dancing pose. The whole sculpture is designed with copper wires of different gauge, folded copper sheets and welded small copper dots. Red and yellow copper patches are shown on his right arm and below his knee on his leg’s extra beauty to the sculpture. the smoothness of the surface, continuity of the form and ornamentation are nicely maintained in it. Now it is a collection of national gallery of modern art, New Delhi.
Human Values –
@ Love for performing art
@Music as a means to feel the oneness with divine
P.V. Janki Ram
P.V.Jankiram is one of the modern Indian icon master sculptors of second generation . he was born in 1930 madras. He joined government college of arts and craft, Madras in 1947 under the guidance of superb teachers D.P.ROY CHOUDHARY and K.C.S. PANIKER. He took diploma in three branches of art i.e. in painting, in sculpture and in commercial art and stayed continuously in same arts college till 1964. It is his grit and string determination of knowing art that led to be a student for 17 years since 1947 to 1964.
He is known for introducing repousse technique i.e. the idea of making free-standing two-dimensional sculptures from beaten and shaped metal pieces of copper for making sculpture. such sculptures are also called repousse meta relief or frontal sculptures. he took this idea from the mask of deities of south Indian temple which are made from thin silver sheets. His famous work in his technique are ‘virgin mother’, ‘Christ’, ‘owl’, ‘eagle’ etc. which mirror his deep experimental calibre and studies. These works also prove copper sheets as the best suited material for him. He had embellished the front of these sculptures with varieties of things like wires of varied gauge, metal tapes, metal blades, metal balls, brass, silver, enamel etc. he got two national awards from Lalit kala academy, New Delhi.in 1964 and 1966.
SUBJECT MATTER – The sculpture is about different facets of woman. its four faces describe the different aspects of womanhood.
Description – Chaturmukhi is carved in monolithic sand stone by famous Indian sculptor Aekka Yada Giri Rao. It explains the complete panorama of women’s life and makes its name meaningful. this thirteen-foot-high sculpture has four sides and explains our aspects of feminine life in abstract form. On the front side, a complete woman head is shown as the symbol of feminine energy and intellect while on its other side a virgin woman has been carved that signifies her time span of childhood. her hands are shown folded in bud shaped. On the third side a couple is shown for denoting her time span after marriage. on the fourth side different feminine facets of woman of middle age are depicted. On the whole it is exclusive example of sculpture and is displayed on square shaped stone pedestal in the lawn as a permanent collection of modern art, new Delhi.
Human Values –
@ Respect for all aspect of womanhood
@ Equal emphasis to all duties and responsibilities at different stages of life.
Aekka Yada Giri Rao
Aekka yadaigiri Rao is one of the master sculptors of modern India. He breathes life into stones. He was born on July 21, 1938 in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh. From his early childhood he wanted to be a sculptor.as a kid also he had love for stones. He took diploma in fine arts from Osmania university, Hyderabad and worked there as a professor of sculpture. He evolved a new visual language of sculpture. Granite is his favourite material because it never gets eroded and stays forever.
His metal welded sculpture ‘we want peace in Indian ocean’ won gold medal in 1975. Now, it is displayed in Indira park, Hyderabad. He received 15 other awards and recognition. ‘The Telangana martyrs memorial’ displayed in gun park in front of Andhra Pradesh assembly is one of his masterpieces works.
SUBJECT MATTER– Whirlpool has an abstract subject matter with complex texture derived from natural organic forms. the complex colour tones are result of thoughtful outlook towards the endless mysteries of nature creating a unique landscape of colour
Description – This is an exclusive etching work of N. Krishna Reddy done on zinc plate by intaglio technique. Krishna Reddy is an international print maker for his own distinct style in the field of graphic art. In this etching work he has shown an impression so whirlpool in his innovative and experimental style. First, he catches the whirling motion of water in his imaginative mind, then he has created it successfully on his print. The tumults water is shown coming out from all sides towards its centre where it looks like a spinning point going inside and creates the image of whirlpool. In this etching work closed nets depict front perspective. Beautiful, attractive and lively texture of blue and green colours coming out through the forceful movement of the water produces shiny images in this graphic print. in this, dynamic wavy nature of real whirlpool has been nicely depicted. Now it is a collection of national art gallery of modern art, New Delhi.
N. Krishna Reddy
Krishna Reddy is an outstanding innovator, experimenter and master artist in intaglio technique. he is internationally acclaimed reputed graphic designer and genius sculptor. He was born on July 15 ,1925 at Chittoor Andhra Pradesh. He completed diploma in fine arts from Vishwa Bharti university, shanti Niketan (W.B). He further looks a certificate in fine art during (1951-52) from slade school of fine arts, London. O. zadkine acknowledged his geniuses and advised him to study engraving with S.W. Hayter, Paris at atelier -17 workshop. he did so during 1953 – 1955 which also sharpened his skills. he has introduced a new technique of making multi-coloured graphics prints by controlling viscosity of paints or colours. in this style, paints are taken from the same etched, scraped and engraved zinc or copper plate. He has combined etching and intaglio both. Intaglio is a process of making prints in which designs are engraved on hard surface like zinc or copper plate. his creativeness brought international fame and acclamation. His Graphic prints are full of lyrical embossed lines and impregnated colours which compel viewers to look at, to touch and to look over many times. He received approximately 75 awards. Government of India also awarded him ‘PADMBHUSHAN’ and ‘PADMSHREE’. there is a permanent print gallery of his works in Bangalore museum. His works inspire every print maker of India and abroad. he has been a splendid person as a teacher and a guide.
SUBJECT MATTER – This print is visualization of the artist’s emotional response to the pain and sufferings of the poor and deprived – the wounded humanity .it is about the physical sufferings of the victimized and wounded, with no hope of rescue in this world or the other.
Description – This black and white composition of etching with aquatint was done by famous print maker artist Somnath Hore in 1958. Basically, theme of this work reflects the injustice to the innocent and poor people of our society. This is a close-knit isolated composition of five standing members of a poor family. two boys are standing closely with their mother. They are looking helplessly towards a girl standing in their right side. This girl might be their whose back portion is visible. One front looking child is shown at the top of the painting. The visible parts of his body are face and hands. All members are shown in torn clothing. A thread is shown in the neck of the front standing boy. Their bloated stomach, large head, small faces, protruding eyes, ribs of thorax and cheek bones are speaking out their inner restlessness and gushing wounds. The mother has put her protective hand on their shoulders sympathetically. This much defined geometrical composition represents the most vulnerable section of humanity. in totally, the whole aspect of the print mirrors the sufferings of the poor. now it is a collection of national gallery of modern art, New Delhi.
Human Values –
@ Care for poor and destitute,
@ children must be taken care of so that they can see and bring a better future.
Som Nath Hore
Somnath Hore was a versatile creative personality in the realm of contemporary art of India. He reflected his creativeness in various modes of expressions e.g. Drawing, printmaking, sculpturing et. He was the master of relief printing media like woodcut, wood engraving, lino – cut and multi-coloured woodcut. He also experimented in intaglio technique and became a self-trained matured master of intaglio. He was born in April 1921 in Chittagong in the undivided Bengal. He lost his father Revathi Mohan Hore at the age of 13 years. His mother inspired him to join communist party. In 1945, he joined government school of art, Calcutta. When communist party was banned in 1949 his academic care got interrupted. Finally, he took is diploma from same college in1957 as an external candidate. in198 he joined as a lecturer in Delhi Poly – technique. He got three ‘national awards’ in 1960,1962and 1963 by Lalit Kala Academy, new Delhi. In 1658 Somnath became a professor of graphic art in kala bhavana, Santi Niketan. his efforts and dedication make this department one of the finest printmaking department in India. as an artist ‘Suffering humanity’ was is min theme. Bengal famine of 1943 the Bangladesh war in 1971 and the Vietnam war in 1975 left deep wounds on his heart and mind. He took this incident as a crime against humanity. He used skeletal human beings and animal figures with cage of ribs on their thorax reflecting the emotions of wounded humanity. Their large skull, small face sticks like legs express the effect of malnutrition on humanity.
SUBJECT MATTER – The etching print shows Devi as a power worship and hidden power of Kundalini (a form of feminine shakti or physical that we all possess). the yoga Upanishads describe that kundalini is lying coiled at the base of our spine represented as either goddess or a sleeping serpent waiting to be awaked.
Description – Devi is an excellent imagoes deep etching work done by famous Indian graphic artist Jyoti Bhatt. he creates an attractive texture of serpentine form in intaglio technique. This work is based on the concept of kundalini power which lies in the “Mooladhar chakra” in all human beings. Any one of us can get empowered with the power of this kundalini by meditation under the guidance of siddha guru. When this power arises in the person, it generates the immense power to feel divine pleasure and light forever.
Jyoti Bhatt shows the female fertility power in the lower part of the composition and male power in the heart of Devi. The spiritual grace of Devi is depicted by the two flowers shown on her cheeks. She is shown wearing flowers in her ears. On her symbolically depicted right palm three words ‘pseudo’, ‘Tantrik’, kundalini is written in English script while one word ‘Devi is written in Devanagari script. similarly, on her left palm the artist has written his name in English and three words ‘Tantrik’, ‘ram- ram’, and’ “Shree’ in Devanagari script. In the midst of the serpentine kundalini the word ram-ram is also written. On the fore head or the “Bhrikuti of Devi” a brilliant vermillion colour Bindi makes It beautiful. Her large eyes resemble the image of goddess Durga. now, it is a collection of national gallery of modern art, New Delhi.
Human Values –
@ Importance of spiritual awakening,
@ union with divine as the ultimate aim.
A noted graphic print maker and reputed photographer Jyoti Bhatt is a product of Gujarat. He was born at Bhavnagar in Gujarat in1934. He took diploma in graphic print 1954 and post diploma in creative painting in 196 from M.S. University, Baroda under stalwarts like N.S. Bendre, K.G. Subramanyam, and Sankho Chaoudhary. He also did two years course in graphic printmaking from pratt institute, U.S.A. his main mission as an artist is to preserve and to seek inspiration from folk art and tribal art in India. The photographic documentation ‘Living tradition of Indian folk art and tribal art of India’ is the greatest achievement in this regard. he worked as a painter from 1954- 1969 and taught as the faculty of fine arts in M.S. University,Baroda.
In 1970 he learned intaglio method and screen painting. Then, he became a prominent etcher his etchings are fine and have capacity of giving messages. These are well planned in execution and design. Their texture is very artistic. he has natural command over lines and creates fine pattern in embossed intaglio printing in his own style. He won gold plaque at national exhibition in 1956 and national award in 1964 by Lalit Kala Academy, new Delhi. he also gets first prize in postage stamp in a competition organized by Indian government to mark silver jubilee of India’s independence.
SUBJECT MATTER– this art work is a journey of this artist down her memory lane of childhood. The subject is unconsciously lost in the mystery of time with nothing in particular but has a gliding image that has found place in her creation. This work is often interpreted as a representation of poverty and loneliness. However, for the artist it is more of personal moment.
Description – ‘Of Walls’ is the most symbolic and meaningful graphic work done by an experimental Indian woman artist Anupam Sud in 1982. in this monochromatic lithography print, a woman is shown sitting on one side. on her back there is a brick wall without plaster. she is in simple dress. her face is made dark to show her sufferings. some folk type white line drawings are also drawn on this wall. In the fore ground lower portion of a male figure in a perfect anatomical balance is shown near the woman who appears as if he were in deep sleep or dead. some of the temples like structures are also visible from the back of the wall. this is the powerful work against the inhuman rules of our society. Now, it is a collection of national gallery modern art at New Delhi.
Human Values –
@ Need for social equality
Anupam sud is the finest intaglio print maker among the Indian artist. She was born in1944 at Hoshiarpur in Punjab. She did her diploma in fine arts from college of arts, New Delhi in 1967.her specialization is in printmaking. She got scholarship from the British council for learning printmaking at slade school, London. She completed it during 1971-72. She taught printmaking in DELHI COLLEGE OF ART.
Afterwards she experimented in different areas of graphic medium. She mixes different intaglio process like etching, mezzo tint, aquatint with screen print and lithography. the beauty of her intaglio and mixed media prints lies in her treatment of light and shade. She also mixes photo mechanical process with intaglio which looks like xerox copy of a photograph. The subject matter of her creative prints is mostly the tragic feelings of human beings. Their face expression is full of psychological anxiety, sorrow and fear.
Her famous prints are ‘Adam and eve’, ‘purusha and prakriti’, ‘homage to mankind’ and ‘biography of crime ‘. She took part in 34 national and international exhibitions and five international print workshops and won 19-time awards. She also won the president of India gold plaque in 1975 at women’s art exhibitions organized by Lalit Kala Academy, New Delhi.
Man Woman and Tree
SUBJECT MATTER – It is a depiction of village life basing on artist childhood memories of rural and tribal liveliness. A native of an Andhra village the artist has presented a rustic version of a man a woman and a tree.
Description – ‘Man, woman and tree’ is one of the finest graphic prints of k. Laxma Goud. The print of this etching and aquatint work is taken on a very smooth paper in which a couple is shown staring at each other in the midst of beautiful shrubs. the man is shown partially hidden in the groove of three trees, standing in the triangular queue. Only upper portion of his body is visible. a very simple, young woman is shown in a saree of dotted prints. she is wearing a nose pin, a “Mangalsutra” and two bangles in each hand. three -fourth portion of her body is shown in aqua colour. The fourth tree is shown behind her. the face expression of woman and man are innocent and caring as if they were doing both real job of parenting nature. The message of this print is again universal which narrates that the co -relation between human and nature must be maintained for the survival of mankind. now it is a collection of national gallery of modern art, New Delhi.
K. Laxma Gaud
A fine printmaker and master draftsman K. Laxma Goud were born in 1940 at Nizampur, Andhra Pradesh. he took a diploma in drawing and painting (1963) from government college of arts and architecture, Hyderabad. He completed his post diploma in mural painting and printmaking from M.S.university, Baroda. He is known for his powerful line drawings, etching and water colours. His main theme is interaction between man and nature. He wants to spread universal message through his creations that co-relations among all species of nature is must for our existence which is slowly being endangered by urbanization and modernity. He has developed his own distinct style which is very fine and detailed. The colour, innocence, simplicity, flora and fauna used in his work are very narrative. he uses variety of medium to express himself e.g. etching, gouache, and pastel etc. he has also painted shown eroticism in nature in disciplined manner in his graphic print ‘man into goat’ , ‘goat into woman’, ‘human and animal’ etc. his work has been exhibited at national and international level. He lives and works in Hyderabad.