Mughal School


Origin and Development of the Mughal school of Miniature Painting.

Mughal School of art Mughal School of art is not a new style in itself but it was the same Indian school of art which was well refined and polished by the Persian artist it the help of Indian Artists. Actually, Mughal art is the mixture of Indian (Rajajasthani traditional art + Persian art = Mughal art. In fact, Mughals were very much impressed by the Indian style of art but the general ornamentation and border decoration was of Persian style.

      Origin and Development

The origin of Mughal School of painting is considered to be a land mark in the history. Anew culture of painting developed under the patronage of Mughal rulers of Taimur dynasty in Bukhara and Samarkand and it reached its peak during the 15th century. Taimur gave due regard and importance to the artists in his court. Bihjad was the best artist among all the painters of that time.

Babur was from Taimur family, founder of Mughal Empire in India. Babur was mostly in the battle field and died in 1530 A.D. His son Humyun had to spend 13 years in exile in Iran after being pushed out by SherShahSuri from India. Humayun was also busy in battle but he got the painting of Dastan – a- ameer Hamza done his time. He had two famous artists in his court who came from Kabul namely Saiyyad Ali (of Tabrez) and Khawaja Abdussamad (of Shiraz) from Bihjad School of art. Humayun died in 1555 or 1556 A.D. after ascending the throne of Delhi and left his son Akbar, only child as his successor. Akbar was only 13-year-old at that time. Emperor Akbar was keenly interested in the art of painting and architecture as well as sculpture also. Akbar had a broad vision. The Mughal School of painting was organized at its zenith during this time. A large number of Indian Artists from all over India were recruited to work in his court. There are many manuscripts that were illustrated in his time. They are………

THE TAWARIKH-E- KHANDAN-E- TEMURIA, 2.THE RAZMA NAMA 3. THE RAMAYANA, 4.THE BAKAT- BABURI 5. THE AKBAR NAMA, 6. THE ANWAR-E-SUNAHELI, 7. THE AYAR-DANISH, 8. THE NAL DAMYANTI, 9. THE CHANGAZ NAMA, 10. THE ZAFAR NAMA, 11. THE AINE AKBARI.12. THE HAMZA NAMA.

According to the Ain-e -Akbari of Abul fazal, during that period, about 1400 events had been painted, out of which few are available now. Akbar had started a new religion Deen – e- Ilahi the aim was of which was to compromise or Suleh Kul. He became very popular in a very short time because of his greatness and liberality. Mir Saiyyad ali, Khwaja Abdussamad, Bihzad, bhag, Miskin, Basavan, Manohar, Daulat, Mansur, Kesu, Lal, Dasawan, Shankar Goverdhan and Inayat etc. are very impartment and famous painters of Akbar’s court or atelier.

Jahangir, son of Akbar, was a great lover of art and nature. The Mughal miniature reached a very high level of excellence in his period. He encourages his painters. As a result, a number of paintings were painted of birds, flower, and animals in his time. Portrait painting became very popular during his time and attained heights of refinement. We even find some portraits of ladies illustrated in his time.  Famous painter of Jahangir’s times is Ustad Mansoor (bird’s painter), Abul Hassan (Animal and portrait painter), Bichitra (Symbolic painter), Bishan Das, Balchand, Mukhlis, Daulat, Riza, Bhim, and Inayt. Under Jahangir’s patronage, Painting acquired greater charm, refinement and dignity. He had great fascination for nature and took delight in the portrait of birds, animals and flowers. The anwar –e –sunahli, is another fable book. The portrait of Jahangir illustrated is a typical example of miniatures executed during the period of Jahangir. This miniature is in the collection of the national museum, New Delhi. After the death of Jahangir, shahjahan became the emperor of the Mughal Empire in 1626. But he did not patronize painting like his father he was a lover of architecture. He got so many forts, palaces and mosques constructed. The Taj Mahel, red fort of Agra etc. the art of painting went on in Jahangir style in Shahajahan’s time also. But the standard was not as high as it was during Jahangir’s period. The art of painting saw downfall in the time of shahjahan because of the traditional and hackneyed style.

Aurangzeb came as a fanatic Muslim ruler. He was a bitter enemy of painting and music. Most of the artist went to hills where they got shelter and after reaching there they invented a rare new style of painting which is known as Pahari School of art. In this way the Mughal painting saw its end during the time of Aurangzeb.

During the period of Bahadurshah, there was a revival of Mughal painting after the neglect shown by Aurangzeb. The style showed an improvement in quality. After 1712 A.D. the Mughal painting again started deteriorating under the later Mughals. Though retaining the outer form, it became lifeless and lost the inherent quality of the earlier Mughal Art. Finally, the glorious period of Mughal Miniatures Art came to an end the early 18th century. So, we can say that Mughal Art originated with Mughals, developed with Mughals and ended with Mughal rule in India.

Features

Mughal painting came with the Mughals, developed with the Mughals and ended with end of Mughal rule in India. When Mughals came in India and saw Indian (Rajasthani) painting they gave a great honour to the Indian artist. This resulted in creation of new style by the combination of India and Persian style which began to be called the Mughal style and undoubtedly unique. The following are characteristic of Mughal art….

Profile faces – Profile of face is the main characteristic of Mughal School. Almost all the portraits are EK CHASHM.

Special decoration with border – This is the main effect of Iranian art on Mughal painting. All the paintings have been decorated with the borders around it which are more ornamented.

Royal splendor – The Mughal emperors craved for royal splendor and discipline. We find typical atmosphere of royalty even in the gathering for pleasure.

Historical scenes – Mostly historical scenes have been painted in Mughal School. Maximum painting of historical scenes was done in Akbar’s time, because he gave much importance to the manuscripts paintings such as Kissa – amir- Hamza.

Fine line drawing – The beautiful thin   thick fine lines can be judged by portraits of the style. The artist has tried to paint each and every facial hard of the persons which is really wonderful.

Portrait painting – There is abundance of portrait painting in the Mughal school. Portrait of saints have also been painted along with emperors. Maximum portrait paintings were done in shahjahan’s period.

Garments – Garments are beautifully and ornamentally painted in the Mughal painting. Transparent chunni have been painted. Most of the garments are of summer season. The male figures are shown wearing Angarkha and chudidar pajamas. The use of stripling (pardaz) is shown with delicate shading.

Religious themes – There is depiction of Indian epics, mythology and love stories such as THE RAMAYANA, THE MAHABHARAT, THE NAL DAMYANTI AND PANCH TANTRA stories. There was also depiction of Islamic, Arabian and Persian episodes.

Depiction of nature – Trees, plants, rivers and mountains etc. have been beautifully depicted in Mughal art. The natural scenes painted show hunting scene battle scene, if there had been three types of trees in a painting, their leaves were painted differently with accuracy.

Ornamental designs – All the paintings of court we find, have beautiful ornamental design on walls of palace, ceiling and floors. The designs are geometrical. Floral and creepers are rhythmic and smooth.

Expression of ideas – The different sentiments have been beautifully painted in the paintings. The depiction of sad emperor, obedient servant, restless queen and nervous boatman are noteworthy. Similarly, every idea is clearly visible in the painting.

Golden and silver colours – Golden and silver colours have been mostly used in painting. In the necklaces and footwear, the golden and silver colours are used with care. N border also there is wonderful use of golden colour.

The use of calligraphy – Calligraphy on it black ink. Even artist’s name has been written beautifully.

Depiction of animals and birds – Animal and birds paintings depictions are also one of the main characteristic of Mughal art. Ustad Mansoor was the best bird painter. A falcon on a perch (bird rest) is matchless painting. Elephant fights, camel fights have been painted beautifully. Lions, tigers, horses and goats etc. have been depicted marvelously.

Natural colours – Mostly mineral and natural colours are used which are attractive in the beginning flat colours were used but later on one can also see the depth with delicate shading of colours. The appropriate colours have been applied with great care in painting.

Silent feature of Mughal School of Miniature Painting

  1. The art of court, secular and eclectic in its character.
  2. The use of calligraphy with artist name.
  3. The portraiture-delineation of fine likeness.
  4. The representation of minute details.
  5. The depiction of nature as a special study (fauna and flora).
  6. The faces are usually painted profile (EK-chasm)
  7. The use of mineral and natural colours with silver and golden.
  8. Painted border decoration used in Arabic script.
  9. The delicacy is maintained in figures and architectural forms.
  10. The depiction of court scenes, hunting and battle scenes, music and dancing scenes, processions and wedding scenes etc.
  11. The depiction of foreign and religious stories especially Islamic and Indian epics like The Ramayana, The Mahabharata, Nal- Damyanti etc.
  12. The Naturalistic treatment of landscape borrowed from European paintings.
  13. The use of stripling (Pardaz) and delicate shading.

Paintings

Description of Mughal Paintings

  1. Birth of Salim


SUBJECT MATTER-

This painting is one of the illustrations from the “Akbarnama” an official chronicle written by Abul fazal on Akbar’s life and reign in 1564, Akbar lost his new born twin sons from one of his wives after which he was worried about having a male successor for his empire. He visited the Sufi sheikh Saleem Chishti at Sikri and prayed for a son.in early 1569, one of his wives became pregnant. She went to Sikri and gave birth there to a son who was named Salim after the sheikh. He later became the emperor Jahangir.

Artist, Title and medium – This painting is one of the illustrations from AKBARNAMA, an official chronicle written by Abul Fazal on Akbar’s life and resign. In 1564, Akbar lost his new born twin sons from one of his wives after which he was worried about having a male successor for his empire. he visited the Sufi sheikh Saleem Chishti at Sikri and prayed for a son. 1569, one of his wives became pregnant, she went to Sikri and gave birth there to a son who was named Salim after the sheikh. he later became the emperor Jahangir.

DESCRIPTION 
– This painting is based on the rejoicings at the birth of prince Salim at Fatehpur Sikri. It is a combination of three scenes, an arrival view of the zenana and the birth chamber, a central courtyard where musicians play music and outside the wall where alms are distributed to beggars.


The upper portion shows Akbar’s wife surrounded by midwives. The royal heir is being taken care of by all the ladies present. It is an arrival view of the encloser as we can also see the rooftop where a peacock is preached. beyond this is a Persian style rocky landscape. The central compartment is lined by a white wall which also act like a back ground for musicians playing instruments in its front. On the right side a lady attendant passes a tray of sweets to the male servants breaking the good news. The enthusiasm of the servants and the musicians is portrayed by their dynamic poses playing all kinds of instruments of that time from percussion drums to trumpets. The lower compartment separated with the brown boundary wall has crowed surging ahead with blessing and praises for the new born and the king. The court servants are seen distributing alms to all present. There is an atmosphere of excitement and celebration all over.
There is strong colour contrast in draperies, skin tones, architecture and interiors. This multicolour composition has light and shade in all its visual imagery that came as a European influence through Britishers. The maturity of treatment in all aspects of the composition shows that Akbar’s artist had by now comfortably absorbed the foreign influence from Persia as well as Europe and made them a part of their own characteristics style.

Description in30 words –

This tempera painting has been composed vertically by “Ramdas” from Akbar’s atelier. In this division of space has been made successfully and more than one episode   has been depicted in one painting by using ideal perspective.

2.Krishna lifting Mount Goverdhan

Artist, Title and Medium –

Miskin, Period- 1585-90A.D., medium – tempera on paper (water colour) School Mughal (Akbar) School of art.

Subject Matter –

This painting is based on the story of lord Krishna. this paintings theme has been taken from Bhagavata Purana. this painting scene is of that time when Krishna once lifting Goverdhan mountain on his little finger to save the people of Gokul from the wrath of Indra. who had let loose heavy rains?

Description –

It is an early painting of Akbar’s time. In this vertical painting Krishna was shown lifting mount Goverdhan on the lifting on the little finger on his left hand. A big multi coloured mountain with deer, monkeys, trees, shrubs and grassy has been painted. The handling of the huge mountains shows Persian influence. Under the mountains, all “Brijvasi” have gathered with their cattle to get shelter from the deluge by the angry rain God Indra. On the top, sky is shown with blue colour. Even under the mountain dark blue colour sky is shown. Lord Krishna is painted in large size (Virat Roopa). Krishna is dressed in his “pitamber” (Deep yellow) with a large garland of white flower s, standing in a relaxed posture lifting the huge mountain effortlessly. Mostly figures are one and half chasm which an influence of Persian art. is also on the right side of Krishna, a tree is shown in bright green colour.

Human Values –

@ Stay united with your group for facing a calamity.

@ Keep your loyalty to the leader and your team.

@ Leader is responsible to guard his people.

@ Respects and tolerance for other religions for social harmony (Mughal ruler got a painting made on a Hindu theme).

Description in 30 words –

This tempera painting made by “Miskin” in Akbar’s period. He has shown Krishna lifting Govardhan on his little finger without any effort. Brijvasi crowd has shown under the Goverdhan in regional dress. Everything is natural with Iranian effect.

3.Falcon on Bird Rest

Artist, Title and medium –

Ustad Mansoor, period – 1618-1620 A.D. (Jahangir’s time), medium – tempera on paper (water colour), School – Mughal school of art.

Subject Matter –

This painting is based on Jahangir’s love for birds and animals. he was a keen falconer and treasured fine specimens of falcons brought from different places. A superb falcon brought from Persia was moulded by a cad and died. Jahangir asked his painter to paint his precious pet falcon to be preserved in Jahangirnama.

Description –

Ustad Mansoor knew the fondness of emperor for his pet falcon. In this painting a tamed falcon is sitting on a cushioned bird rest. On the bird rest, Nadir – ul – As is signed by Ustad Mansoor who was awarded this title. The cruel eye of falcon can be seen in this painting. The falcon is painted in white against a yellow background with brown details of its folded wings, a sharp beak and round vigilant eyes is painted in light brown and yellow ochre deep colour.
Three words Jahangir Patashah at top, Bahari near the falcon and Uttam on the bottom are written. Bahari means falcon and Uttam means excellent.

Description in 30 words –

This tempera painting is made by “Ustad Mansoor” of Jahangir court. He painted a tamed falcon resting on a cushions bird rest with highly realistic manner for “Jahangir Nama”. some calligraphy is shown in this painting.

4.Kabir and Raidas

Artist, Title and Medium 

Faquirullah khan, Period – 1640 A.D., (Shahjahan’s time), Medium – tempera on paper (water colour), School – Mughal School of art.

Subject matter –

The painting belongs to era of Dara Shikoh who respected all religion equally. this painting shows to prominent saint of that time Kabeer and Raidas. Dara Shikoh being the Muslim has shown Hindu saints in the painting. This painting is one of the master peace of that time.

Description-

This horizontal painting of saint KABEER shows him weaving a garment on his loom, in a meditating mood. The other saint, RAIDAS sitting closed by, is also in the same mood. Both are meditating on a same religious topic. The painting brings simple and peaceful Indian village life, where work is worship. The huts of the saints are in rural Indian villages. The colours used are brown and light blue. The border of the painting is light brown and shades are very fine. DARA SHIKOH (son of shahjahan) resected both Hindu and Muslim saints. This is the master piece of the paintings painted during that time.

Human Values –

@ Simple living and high thinking.

@ Humanity.

@ No superficial life styles.

@ Two religious’ leaders in a peaceful exchange of ideas without competing for supremacy.

@Dignity of labour – no work is small or menial.

@ Oneness of divine though means and ways to reach him differ.


Description in 30 words –

This horizontal painting made by “Ustad Faqueerullah” from shahjahan court. Here saint Kabir is waving a cloth in front of saint Ravidas .it Reflects the simple and peaceful environment of village. They both are discussing on any spiritual topic seriously.

5.Marriage procession of Dara Shikoh

Artist title and medium – 

This painting “Marriage procession of Dara Shikoh made by “Haji Madni, Period – 1750 A.D. (Oudh – Mughal) Tempera on paper (water colour) school

Subject Matter –

This painting is based on marriage procession of Dara shikoh . this painting suggests that the artist was aware of historical account of dara shikoh fabulous marriage involving a cost of rs. 32 lacs than half of which amount was spent by his elder sister jahnara begum. Dara shikoh got married to “Nadira”begum in 1633A.D.

Description-

This magnificent painting, an all-time master piece, is a vertical brilliant depiction of the marriage procession of Dara Shikoh who is riding alert on a decorated horse. While his father is also riding on another decorated horse, just behind Dara Shikoh’s horse. He is followed by three attendant one bearing a candle, the second one holding the horse and the third one is carrying a chowri. The royal people are shown riding horses and some are on foot proceeding towards the bride’s house. A large gathering of men and woman is joyfully receiving the Barat. All the figures are ek-chasm.
Marvellous depiction of various types of fireworks can be seen in the background. Well decorated border is there. White, Red, Green, Maroon, Turquoise blue with a touch of Greyish black colour have been used. Golden colour has also been used at important places. This meticulously done painting brings forth all the gaiety and joy of the festive occasion.

Human Values –

@ Discipline in the conduct.

@ Mutual respect for each other in the bride and groom’s family.
@ Welcome the guests with an openhearted.  

Description in 30 words –   

This tempera painting made by “Hazi Madni” from (Oudh).  Hera well-dressed “Dara Shikoh” is shown riding on a decorated horse he is leading his marriage procession. A crowded BARAT is shown carefully.

Deccan school of miniature painting

Origin And Development

Deccan school of miniature painting had its beginning in 1560 A.D. when Mughal school had its existence the Deccan school was already in existence. Deccan miniatures amalgamation of locale Deccan culture and Islamic art of Iran, Persia and turkey. the new era of miniature painting took birth in Deccan after the decline of Behmani rulers. Islamic rulers were also great lover of art as they belonged to Persian and Afghani origin. but they were fanatic hence their dimension of love of art were confined only the decorative floral and ornamental designs. In the southern part of vindhya mountains vijay nagar was a powerful Hindu kingdom where Indian art and culture flourished. The murals made in Virupakhsh temple   at Humpi virbhadra temple at Lepakshi representing the episodes from Ramayana and Mahabharata mirror the artistic heritage   of vijaynagar empire.  Brahmani rulers defeated   the great Hindu kingdom of vijaynagar in the battle of talikota. after, that the Hindu artists from vijaynagar and several Mughal painters migrated from the Aurangzeb’s court developed a new style of miniature paintings in Deccan school.  Ahmedanagar, Bijapur,Golcondaand  Hyderabad  were  main  centers of deccan school.  Deccan school of miniature was developed in the plateau region between Narmada and Krishna river in south India during (1560-1800) A.D. though Deccan school is contemporary to Mughal school but it developed differently.  One can see the impact of Chinese, Mughal, European, Persian and even Arabic paintings on Deccan school. In spite of these, basic nature looks like Hindu murals of vijaynagar’s temples.  The decorative details, three dimensional effects, use of repetitive motifs elongated human beings and symmetrical architectures make Decani miniatures look special. So, the origin and development of Decani (Deccan) school of art has left a special landmark in the history of art.          

Features of the Deccan miniature painting

Colour scheme Brilliant and beautiful colours have been used in Deccan miniature painting. They are different from the colours of the northern painting style. Golden colour has been used largely in the paintings where architecture is shown and also in the costumes, jewelry, utensils etc.

Persian influence High horizon lavish use of golden colour, the landscape, golden sky, some flowering plants and arabesque on the top of the throne (throne of prosperity, Bijapur) etc. all have Persian influence on them.

Mughal influence In the later phase (17th and 18th century) of Deccan style, Mughal influence was at peak. Mughal influence was due to migration of several Mughal painters to the Decan during downfall of Mughal school of painting.

Decorative paintings Deccan paintings were mostly decorative especially Hyderabad painting like the flowerbeds, costumes, rich and brilliant colours facial feature etc.

Bold drawing and Shading techniques Bold drawing shading technique and use of rich. Pure and brilliant colours flourished at Tanjore.

Silent Features

1. The painting Style s which originated in Deccan sultanates are marked by refined elegance of Mughal and Persian influence .

2. Deccan painting shows sturdy growing trees as circular masses filed by leaves in repetitive design, birds, and animals show marked influence of the mural painting at Vijayanagar.

3. Deccan painting shows remarkable expressive style of Ragmala paintings. The colors in the Ragmala series are mostly dark with typical Prussian blue and orange to product a fine artistic excellence .

4. In human figures, they combined Persian elements and Indian figures, especially in women in their indigenous costumes, elongated face, sharp features, wide open eyes broad forehead, high necks, oversize jewelry, tall and cylinder figures are there Deccan inventions .

5. in portrait painting, the Deccan were greatly influenced by Mughal realism and imitated European naturalism and succeeded in producing a three-dimensional effect.

6. Deccan Painters leaned more towards idealized, imaginary rather than Mughal examples, richness with elaborate detail and wonderfully thought out compositions .

7. The Deccan colors used in the painting are rich and brilliant, and golden color is used profusely for flowering plant, costumes jewelry and jutting out horizon.

Sub Schools of Deccan Miniature Painting

Ahmednagar

The early phase of Deccan painting starts in 16th century with Yusuf Adil shah an Iranian immigrant basically a soldier who founded Adil Shah rule At Bijapur. On his invitation several Iranian, Persian and Turkish painter, calligraphers and scholars came to his court. Thee immigrant artists made painting on pure Islamic background which were confined only to the text illumination. The earliest Temples of Deccan school are contained in the manuscripts named Than – in Husain a book of poem written in the praise of Hussain nizam shah -1 king of Ahmednagar 1553- 1565. It was executed and illustrated by the orders of his widow after his death. This illustrated manuscript is preserved in Bharat Itihas Sanshodhak Mandal Pune. The colours used in these painting s are rich and brilliant but the style of application is different from that of northern paintings. The Persian influence can be seen in high horizon, golden back ground, Prussian blue sky and pink mountains. Trees and he landscape. female figures are painted in traditional style of Mandu and Malwa. They have elongated profile face and body structure. there feet are pointing in same direction s. They look like puppet and resemble the regional folk art of the murals of various Hindu temples of Vijayanagar. Ahmednagar artists also painted portraits but in Mughal style. The portraits of Burhan nizam shah II of Ahmednagar marks Mughal effect. Vasant raga and Raga Hindola are the finest example in Ahmednagar.

Bijapur

A Number of descendants Yusuf ADIL Shah A great fascination for art and patronize artists. The style of art works of second phase of Decani school remark the departure of art from the prior Decani mural tradition of miniature s. sultan Adil shah 1558- 1580 ,  the king of small kingdom of Bijapur accelerated Artistic activities during his regime , he commissioned to illustrate the manuscripts Nazum -ul ulum (Sceince of stars ) This illustrated manuscript has 876 paintings which are real representative of refined decani school in which the human figure are painted in the style of mural of Hindu temples Hampi and Virbhadra . the whole format, its background and fine calligraphy done in decani school reflects Parisian effects on it. Ramaala painting of Bijapur court are very famous in which Indian motifs are beautifully fused. Dhanshri Ragini, Gauri Ragini, Shri Ragini etc. Are the noted masterpiece of the Ramaala series. Some excellent Bijapur paintings are preserved in the Bikaner royal collection. The most famous portrait of Bijapur court of Ibrahim Adil shah -II 1580- 1626 A.D. who succeed his uncle Adil shah at the edge of nine years. He himself was a singer, poet, master calligraphy and good patron of art. The Decani school of miniature painting achieved the height during his Regine.

Golconda

Abdul Hussain Qutab shah of Golconda was one of those sultans who provide effective patronage to the Hindu artists of Vijayanagar and refugee artists of Mughal court. though Golconda artists painted in Mughal style they kept alive particular Decani testes and flavour. This school continued till 18th century A.D. golden back ground. pink mountains realistic trees and shrubs are the characteristics of Golconda school. “Lady and Maina” and “Chand Bibi Playing Polo” are excellent examples of this school. Aurangzeb conquered Golconda in 1687 A.D. The style of Deccan school continued long after the extinction of Deccan sultans of Ahmednagar, Bijapur and Golconda till 17th century A.D. later on, miniature paintings started flourished in Hyderabad under the royal patronage of Asaf jahan -I by Golconda artists. rich colours, Deccan Faces highly decorative costumes, rhythmic posture and symmetrical architectures are distinctive feature s of this school.

Hyderabad

The origin of Hyderabad school begins with the foundation of Asaf jahan dynasty in 1724 A.D.  this royal patronage was an important factor in flourishing this school. the descendant of Jaahi dynasty were popularly known as Nizams. Nizam inherited the richest part of Mughal empire. the nizam led simple pious and spiritual life. Golkonda school did not fall at the end of the kingdom but confined under the patronage of Nizam’s birth new features in regard artist draftsman ship, colouring atmosphere, subject matter and architectural peculiarities. the presence of luxuries is absent in these miniatures of this school. the unique style of approach and depiction easily differentiate Hyderabad school miniature from other Deccan miniature. gold, red, orange, pale green, pallid blue is used to depict flower garden horizon sky and clouds. the artist depicted the real nature and architecture with its interior decoration. The themes of painting of this school are portraits of Nizams, saints, paintings on mobility, listening music, visiting a saint seating near terrace. Deccan faces rhythmic postures symmetrical architectures and a special type of peace and harmony scattered all around on the paintings are seen on the miniatures of Hyderabad school. hence this school slowly acquired declining nature.

Tanjore

A style of painting characterized by bold drawing technique of shading and he use of pure and brilliant colours flourished at Tanjore in south India during the late 18th and 19th century. a typical example of Tanjore painting, in the collection of the national museum is an illustrated wooden panel of early 19th century showing the coronation of ram. the scene is laid elaborately decorated arches.  In the middle Ram and Sita are seated on the throne, attendant by his brothers and lady.in the left and right panels are seen Rishis, courtiers and princes. In the foreground are Hanuman Sugriva who are being honoured and two other Bananas opening box probably containing gifts. the style is decorative and marked by the use of bright colours and ornamental details. The conical crown appearing in the miniature is a typical feature of Tanjore and painting.

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Deccan Painting

  1. Chand Bibi Playing Polo

Chand Bibi playing polo is from Golconda sub school of Deccan Miniature Painting Artist was unknown.

Subject matter–

The subject matter of painting is the internment of Chand Bibi and her companions

Medium and technique –

The medium used in this painting is tempera (water colour) on paper. in this technique, any type of glue is mixed with coloured powder   so as to make it suitable for working on any surface. The glue can be of any type. fresh egg. Yule can also be used. after this mixture, water is also added. in light, the whole mixture (glue + coloured powder+ water) dries quickly.
And for their internment they have chooser the game polo and the title according to it So the subject matter is justified because when we watch this painting we feel and understand the subject matter from our heart.

Description –

Chand Bibi is playing polo with her companions four horses are shown on which four ladies Chand Bibi (sitting on white horse) and her three companions are sitting eyes of all ladies are big and open while waist is triangular in shape. one lady is standing on the fore ground with her hands directing upwards. She is perhaps an attendant. A white ball is also shown. a silvery grey lotus lake with aquatic words has been shown in the fore ground and the horizon is receding. In the back ground, huts, rocks, trees etc.  are shown. Green, yellow, blue and brown colours are used. being a miniature painting, it seems as if it is a big size painting. in the blue sky, sun is also shown. So over all it is a well-balanced and beautiful painting.

Human Values –

@ Sports as a source of recreation for a healthy and fulfilling life.

@ Teamwork towards a conman goal.

@ Develop a sense of healthy competition to get better in all fields.

@ Camaraderie.

Description in 30 words –

It is a tempera painting from Golconda of Deccan school. This painting depicts Chand Bibi playing polo with her three companion’s and polo master. In foreground a lotus pond is painted with Six Aquatic birds.

2.Ragini Pathamishka

Name of artist –

unknown – The Deccan School of Miniature Painting Ragin Pat Hamshika is very beautiful painting. one can easily appreciate it on the basis of fallowing points.

Medium and technique –

The medium used in this painting is tempera (water colour) on paper. in this technique, any type of glue is mixed with coloured powder   so as to make it suitable for working on any surface. The glue can be of any type. fresh egg. Yule can also be used. after this mixture, water is also added. in light, the whole mixture (glue + coloured powder+ water) dries quickly.

Subject matter –

The subject matter of this painting has been taken from – “raga Hans” Dhwani. importance of music has been shown in this painting. A princess playing the veena has been shown while made servant are listing to the music very carefully.
Description –

The compositional arrangements of this painting are very appealing. three female figures have been arranged very beautifully in the red coloured four ground. in the centre, a princess is shown holding a veena and is sitting on a red colored throne. on her left side, a dashi (med servant) is standing and on the right side of the princess also a dashi is escorting her by waving a fan for the princess. A Hukka of yellow colour has been arranged in the centre in the front of the princess and on the left side of Hukka , small black elephant has been shown . in this painting, all the pillars and minarets or toms have been arranged symmetrically. at the top of the painting, an inscription has been mentioned all over (above the fine minarets shown). So, the whole composition is well composed and well balanced.

Human Values –

@ Camaraderie togetherness and solidarity.

Hazrat Nizamuddin Auiliya-
@ Respect for older guru or your seniors.

@ Mutual respects for each other’s art and talent.

@Regard for your juniors.

@Music for devotion to the divine.

@ Oneness of divine though means and way to reach him differ.

Description in 30 words –

In this Deccan miniature painting of Ahmednagar sub school, it composed vertically almost in symmetrical manner. Water colour (tempera) technique are used. thin and forceful lines are rendered. Necessary textual effect is given. on the top of the composition some inscriptions are done in Devanagari scripts. .

3. Hazrat Nizamuddin Auliya And Amir Khusro

Deccan Paintings – Hazrat Nizam-ud-Awaliya, and Amir Khusro,Hyderabad, circa 1750-70 A.D., National Museum, New Delhi

Artist Title and Medium –

 ‘Hazrat Nizzamuddin Auliya and amir khusro’   belongs to Hyderabad school and is made in water colour technique artist – unknown. painted during circa 1750-70 A.D. The courtesy of this painting is at national museum; New Delhi.

Subject Matter –

This painting is based on the discussion between hazrat nizam Uddin aaliya and amir khusro on a religious subject. Amir khusro was the student of Nizamuddin auliya.

Description –

The Deccan Painting Hazarat Nizamuddin Auliya and Amir Khusro belongs to hydrabad Sub school of deccan miniature painting. In the painting Hazarat Nizamuddin Auliya and amir Khusro have been shown sitting on an orange platform discussing on some religious subject. Amir khusro was the favourite companion of 12th century A.D. Saint Hazrat Nizamuddin Auliya and amir Khusro was also the most favourite disciple of Hazrat Nizamuddin Auliya. Amir Khusro was an indo-Persian (Sufi) poet from Delhi. he was associated with royal court of more than seven rulers of Delhi saltant. In the fore ground Hazarat Nizamuddin is shown sitting on the right side of amir khusro is sitting on the left side holding a musical instrument. At the bottom, two small green lawns with red flowers on both sides have been depicted. Hazrat Nizamuddin is shown wearing olive green dress which is the typical dress of Sufi saints. An aureole is shown around his head show his supremacy. aureole is yellow in colour and its circular border is decorated with brown coloured small tringles. amir Khusro is wearing red turban and red dress. between both the figures some white eatable has been shown in a utensil.
In the back ground, blue coloured sky has been shown. a tree on the right side with yellow fruits, red flowers and brown trunk has been shown. A band of red flower and green leaves has been depicted on the horizon line. So, it is well composed and well-balanced painting.

Human Values –

@ Respect for your older guru or seniors,

@regard for your juniors,

@music for devotion to the divine.

Painting in 30 words –

This Hyderabadi miniature painting painted in tempera technique is well composed vertically and almost formally shows with the appropriate colour harmony.

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