Origin And Development

Rajasthani school of miniature painting flourished between 16th to early 19th century in the principalities of Rajasthan. Dr. A coomarswami The great scholar of Indian Art History discovered this school and introduced it as Rajput school. Later this school was called Rajasthani school. Rajasthan is divided in to parts by the aravali parvat,on the west are the jodhpur ,Bikaner and Jaisalmer to the east Mewar ,Bubdi ,kishangarh and kota .first of all the painting started from Mewar to Bundi and other parts of state.

It was inspired and influenced by Jain manuscripts painting of Gujrat along with Indian traditional art. Krishna leela is the most popular theme in the Rajasthani school. these topic have been derived from the literary work of Surdas .Tulsidas ,Meera bai Keshav das and Bihari lal also from Bhagvat Puran Ramayna and Geet Govinda etc.

Earlier this style was inspired by Vaishnava religion at that time the followers of Ramanuj like ballabhachaarya chaitany mahaprabhu etc. Had reached this religion to the climax. Important illustrations of Ramayna and Mahabharat of this school are also founded. Besides this theme later on painting have been done on romance ,general folk themes .illustration on Ragmala ,Barhmasa and nayk -nayika bheda,etc.Mewar ,Bubdi jodhpur , Bikaner ,kishan gharh and Jaipur are the sab school of Rajasthani school of  minture painting .

Main features

Verity of themes – There is a great verity in themes of Rajasthani paintings. themes are based on sessions (Brahmasa) music, hunting scenes religious themes like Ramayna, Mahabharta, love scenes and krishan and Radha have been depicted.

Colour scheme – The main colour used are the primery colours (red blue and yellow) green, brown and white. other colours in use are golden and silver.

Costumes – Females are wearing lehenga and choli with transparent dupatta, males are wearing turbun, jhabba , patka and pazama .

Facial feature – Face of full of emotions and feelings are the according the moods. The face is elongated, oval and profile (side pose) the forehead is in inclining downwards, long and pointed nose swelling out lips and pointed chin.

Depiction of women – The women of kishangarh school are very impressive Bani Thani of kishangarh school are world fame painting.

Lines– the lines are very fine powerful and rhythmic.

Depiction of nature – Nature has also been depicted very beautifully, different types of trees, floral trees, mountains, water, springs and lakes have been depicted in very attractive manners.

Silent Features

Silent Feature

1. Diversity in Themes, Scenes of any activity related of religion, Social, Court hunting Nayak – Nayika Bheda , Season (Barah Masa ),Rag Ragini etc.

2.The Powerful And rhythmic lines of this school are from old traditional Indian Art.

3. Glowing colours in deep harmonious contrast.

4. Variety of costumes of male and female of Rajasthan region .

5. Inspired from Indian epics, devotional poetry, Romantic poetry, and Indian Music.

6. Human Faces are shown from different angle.

7. Female figures are frequently painted .

8. Mostly Face are profile .

9. Classification of feminine charm in different modes and moods.

10. Some Large paintings are only at Kishangarh, Kota, Bundi and Bikaner.

Sub School Of Rajasthani School of Miniature Painting


Mewar school flourished under the patronage of Rajput kings in a completely indigenous folk style. This School attained its height during the reign of Maharaja Jagat Singh (1628-1652). Sahibdin, a court painter of Mewar and Manohar, an artist from Mandu were noted painters of this school. Sahibdin Painted “Nayak-Nayika Bheda”, Bhagwat purana and series of “Ragmala” paintings. he also painted the themes from social and cultural life and transform paintings from Mewar paintings from primitive folk style into sophisticated style.

The background in Mewar school was decorated with bright flat colors. Decorative natural scenes with simple architectural details are present. Human figures painted I this style have oval faces, long pointed nose, fish like eyes, narrow forehead and small mouth. The male figures were shown longer than female figures. Main garments of male figures were jama, patka and turban while female figures were choli lehenga and transparent odhani. The elephants and camels painted in this style look more natural than birds.

Features of Mewar

1. The larger number of painting in this style is centered around Krishna Bhakti cult. the costumes prevailing at the period, village life, senses from Rajput court, marriage processions songs and dances, inner life of the places but battle scenes have also been painted.

2. Bright and brilliant colors have been profusely used.

3. Male and female figure have long nose, oval shaped faces, elongated fish like eyes. the males use loose fitting garments. embroidered Pataka and turbans and females use loose long skirts. choli and transparent odhani (veils) The female figure have been drawn relatively smaller than the male.


Bundi school developed in Kota, Bundi and Jhalmar in the beginning of 17th century A.D. under the reign of raja ram Singh and raja arjun Singh. This school reached its climax in the middle of 18th century A.D. in the beginning this school had the effect of Mughal and Mewar school. Later on, it came as an independent school. in this school the nature has been depicted in real form. Red brown complexion is its special quality of Bundi school. they had round faces, long chin and eyes like lotus petals. The female faces are shown soft and smiling. Light and shade shown near the eyes, shows depth. The male figures are shown healthy, strong courageous. The ladies are painted in lehenga, choli and Ghaghara.

The favorite themes of this school are Ragmala, Barahmasa and Rasikpriya. Lord Krishna is painted in blue color. Later on, the complexion of human face is replaced by flesh pink orange color. Bright colors like orange and green are almost only used in proper proportion. Gold and silver colors have also been used. Red color sky and lotus pond with bird are the special style of Bundi school. The notable works of this school could be seen in mural decoration of the chitrashala of Bundi palace. The main painters are Dondia, Surjanmal, Ahmed Ali, Ramlal and Utkalram.

Features of Bundi School

1. In Bundi paintings, human figure resembles, but expressions differ greatly.

2. Human face is round and small, the shades near cheeks, eyes and nose add charm and emotion to the figure.

3. landscapes of hills, thick jungles, rivers and lotus ponds and lakes with water birds have been painted beautifully.

4. The favorite theme of Bundi paintings are – Ragmala, Barahmasha, and Rasikpriya.


Rathore clan of Rajput of central India, Rao Jodha founded jodhpur in 1459. Initially jodhpur painter paint in Jain style. Jodhpur style developed during (1760-1780) A.D. in the reign of Vijay Singh. The soft and rhythmic lines and jewel like color composition excelled this style as a separate sub school of Rajasthani miniature. The relative size of jodhpur miniature art is bigger than that of others. This school reached its climax during the reign of man Singh (1803-1843) A.D. a series of 121 paintings painted in 1802 A.D. based on “Dhola and Marwani” ballad are assets of this school.

Due to Mughal impact, graceful and romantic portraits of ladies have been painted in outline against a dark background. ‘a lady flying kite’ is one of its best examples. The female figures are shown uplifted forehead, sharp nose like beak of parrot, eyes like wagtails stretched up to ear, slim waist and long legs. They are decorated with variety of ornaments. Male figure has beautiful moustache and side burns. Their turbans are shown very high. big architectural scenes are painted in white color. Background is generally full of dense forest. Highly decorative designs, sparkling of colors like enamel on a dark background and angular legs of animals are special features of jodhpur school. The main artist of this school was Jitmal, Dana, Shivdas and Kalu etc.

Features of Jodhpur School

1. Female figures are tall, trees tied up high in a knot and have high forehead. The heads are smaller compression in to the body, Eyes are starched to the ear in the shape of wagtail. Nose are sharp like the beak of parrot, waists are slim, Breast and buttocks are heavy and legs are long. The mustache and side burns of the male are spectacular.

2. Jodhpur painting are somewhat larger than other miniatures.

3. Female figures are somewhat shorter than compression to males.

4. The pavilions are white and large. There are massed twisted clouds in the sky and a dense grove of trees in the back ground.


Bikaner was founded by sixth son of Rao jodh, the founder of jodhpur in 1485. Since long Bikaner had been an important center of Rajasthani miniature paintings. Bikaner school developed under the patronage of Rathore clan of Rajput kings, like raja rai Singh, raja Karan Singh and raja Anup Singh after 17th century A.D. with a high Mughal character. In 1750A.D. Bikaner accepted Mughal sovereignty and a large number of artists from Aurangzeb’s court migrated to Bikaner. Ustad Hamid Ruknuddin, a famous painter was one of them. He illustrated themes of Rasikpriya and Bhagwat purana in this style. He was also expert in painting female figure and portraiture, Hasan Raza, Nooruddin, sahibdin etc. ‘Varsha Vihar’ is an important work of famous painter life. Bikaner school reached its climax during the reign of raja Anup Singh. The best form of these miniature can be seen in the illustrations of Barahmasa and Ragmla. The decoration of Anup mahal and Phool Mahal done in this style is worth seeing.

Though most of the artist of this school were Muslims yet they pain Hindu’s themes very efficiently. In Bikaner style, half-closed eyes, small chin, tight lips, thin wrists of female figures have been painted. Males are shown narrow chests and tilted downwards moustaches. The ladies Ghaghara’s are decorated with stripes and fine works. Clouds have been painted in circular pattern. The leaves of trees are shown painted in cluster of repeated patterns. The domes and lattices painted in this style have clear Mughal effect. Its color composition is soft showing spiritualism. Mostly purple, green, grey and Badami color are used with tonal variations. the fine drawing clever use of jewel like color, landscapes, details etc. are the characteristics of Bikaner style. The subject matter of this school is based on themes from Ramayana, Mahabharata, Krishna legend and Krishna and love scene of Radha and Krishna. ‘Krishna supporting mount Goverdhan’ is the finest masterpiece of Bikaner school painted by Rukunuddin’s son Sahibdin. In 1690A.D.

Features of Bikaner

1. Main theme of Bikaner paintings is based on Ramayana, Mahabharat, Krishna Legends, Ragmala and other love scenes of Radha and Krishna .

2. In human figures, a little tight lip is painted, eyes are half open chin small wrist are very thin. chest on comparison to other Rajput style seems under developed and mustaches of men, a little downward bent. Ghaghra of the women are decorated with diagonal strips.

3. Clouds are painted in special circular style.

4. Hunting scenes have also been beautifully depicted.


A very small estate Kishangarh is surrounded by Jodhpur, Shahpur and Ajmer. This estate was inherited by raja Krishan Singh in 1609 A.D., the eighth son of Raja Udai Singh of jodhpur. Kishangarh is situated near gundalia lake. te end of 18th century remarkably known as the closure time of the most of Rajasthani sub schools and sparkling birth of kishngarh school. This school flourished a some of the prominent schools of Rajasthan. The credit of flourishing this school goes to its scholar raja Sawant Singh (1748-1757). He himself was a great poet, critic, artist and musician. He wrote 76 books under his pen name nigari das. being the follower of Vallabh sect he was devotee of lord Krishna. He fell in deep love with an extraordinarily beautiful maid servant named Bani Thani. She was very smart and well-dressed always. Her name matched with her personality in each and every aspect. In his poems, he described Bani Thani as Radha. Nagari is another name of Radha. Hence, he took this pen name Nagari das.in 1757 he accepted asceticism and went to live in Vrindavan with Bani Thani where he died seven years later.it was the heavenly beauty of Bani Thani which inspired the painters of kishangarh to paint Radha most beautifully. The most famous artist of this school is nihalchand whose painting Bani -thani is supposed to represent kishangarh school. He was a court painter of Raja Sawant Singh. Some artist of kishsngarh school are Chhotu, Amirchnd, Surdhwaj, Bhawani das etc.

In the beginning, the theme of the painting of this school was only radha and Krishna. but later on, themes from “Geet Govind, Bhagwat purana, Bihari Chandrika, Nayak-nayika Bheda and harem scenes etc. have been painted. The most important feature of kishangarh school is depiction of women. They are painted having long eyes narrower than jodhpur style curved upwards, exaggerated arch of eyebrows, decorative hair curls hanging in front of ear, thin lips long straight pointed nose and pronounced chin. Their profile faces are long with high sloping fore head. Their long beautiful fingers and long neck fully decorated with pearl ornaments of different style also add beauty to these paintings. In kishangarh school Radha and Krishna have been treated as the soul and supreme god. Mostly primary colors red, yellow, blue and white have been used. Silver and gold colors add extra beauty to these paintings. Rhythmic, soft, graceful and elliptical lines have been used in these paintings. Soon after the death of raja Sawant Singh kishangarh school reached its climax. The beautifully painted Radha and Krishna are the hallmark of this school.

Features of Kishangarh

1.Subject matter in kishangarh Schools widely varied. hunting scenes. court scenes. portraits are kings, Nawabs, emperors, and saints have been beautifully painted.

2.The picture are romantic life of Radha and Krishna describe in Geet Govind, stories from Bhagwat purana, scenes from Bihari Chandrika and Nayak nayika Bheda Are main subjects of Kishan garh paintings.

3. Female figures are made Slim, flexible and tall like creepers. Face are long with high and sloping foreheads. Pointed long nose bulging out well-cut-lips. long chins the long-drawn eyes curved upward in the shape “KHANJAN PKSHI” and bow like eyebrows have been beautifully painted. Long neck, long fingers, a lock of hanging near the ear enhance their aesthetic beauty.

4. Primary colors have been applied.

5. Horizon and Sky are replaced by creepers and foliage’s.


Raja Sawai Jai Singh (1693-1793) A.D. established Jaipur kingdom in a properly planned manner. The rulers of Jaipur were great lover of art and patronized paintings. Jaipur was he first Rajasthani kingdom which allowed Mughals in Rajasthan that caused Mughals influence on Rajasthani art and architecture by strong mutual and cultural exchange. Initially, Mughal impact dominated this indigenous art style. But later on, in late 18th century A.D., the Rajasthani style dominated the Mughal style under the personal inspiration of Jaipur kings so the birth of Jaipur school. Jaipur school has the special place in the history due to its originality. Jaipur school reached its climax during the reign of raja Pratap Singh (1779-1803) A.D. He was a great lover of art and a devotee of Krishna.

Jaipur style shows unique union of devotion, romance and emotion.lines are flexible, soft and rhythmic. The use of light and shade is clearly visible. The human faces are round and medium in size. Their eyes are painted long like fish. Females have bright face, red lips , fleshy bodies and predominant breasts. Males have robust bodies, round nose yellow face and hair reaching up to ear. They wear pajamas and turbans in which diamond and pearls are studded. Their shoe tips are pointed and high. The ghagras of ladies are painted in dark color. Ornamental border and profusion of golden color add beauty to this style. The painted animals, birds and cows’ elephants, horses, peacock etc. look natural and beautiful. Romantic love scenes from harem have been paited nicely. Jaipur style is also known for it’s life size portraits of most of it’s rulers on walls and canvas. The main artist of this school were sahibram, ghasilal, hirachand , guman and hukma. ‘bihari satsai’ is one os it’s famous manuscripts. The main hemes of this school were ragmala depiction of seasons, Krishna leela, Ramayana and Mahabharat.

Features of Jaipur School

1. In the painting of Jaipur, there is a grace in the use of colors and lines. there is the expression of different postures.

2. The face of women is round. figure is in medium size; eyes are large and elongated with an upward curve.

3. The male figures have a robust body, round nose, and hair reaching up to the ear. The men wear loose payzamas and turban studded with diamonds. Ghaghara od women are painted with dark colors.

4. Jaipur paintings have ornamented borders.

5. Light and shades has been used properly.

Description of Paintings

Maru Ragini

Subject Matter

Maru Ragini is a vertical painting from Ragmala series it was painted by the painter of Mewar (Udaipur) namely sahibdin.

Title, Medium and Artist-

The Rajasthani miniature painting Maru Ragini painted by sahibdin in circa 1660A.D. belongs to the sub school of Mewar. The medium used in the is tempera (water colour) on paper on painting of size 23.5X 17 cm. it has been preserved at the National Museum New Delhi.


The painting is based on the famous love story of Dhola Maru which is a popular in Rajasthan. The painting is divided in two parts. In the upper part Dhola and Maru have been shown sitting under a yellow canopy with a red curtain facing each other. Maru is shown wearing Rajasthani costume and Dhola is shown wearing aristocratic attire sword and shield both are making love. on both sides, a big tree is shown an inscription is shown at the top. The lower part, Maru is caressing her pet camel, green back ground is shown. Along with these two male escorts taking sticks in their hands and one dog is running ahead the camel.  The camel is shown in deep yellow colour. The whole painting has early Mughal influence. Red, orange, yellow and dark green colour has been used in the painting, lines are thick and sharp.

Huma Values –

@ Love and devotion of the royal couple for each other,

@ Loyalty of the attendants toward there master.

@ They are accompanying him to ensure his well-being.

Description in 30 words-

Its tempera painting made by “Sahibdin” from Mewar sub school of Rajasthan. Here a king and his queen rides on a camel in desert with two mail escorts and a dog. Whole painting depicted Mughal impact.


Subject matter – The painting depicts a scene from Ramayana when Bharat comes to chitrkut to meet Rama with his three mothers and guru Vishwa Mitra various episode have been shown in a single scene.

Artist, medium and title – The Rajasthani miniature painting Bharat meets Rama at chitrkut painted by Gumman in circa 1740-50 A.D. belongs to the sub school of Jaipur. The medium used in the is tempera (water colour) on paper on. it has been preserved at the National Museum New Delhi.


The theme is this painting has been taken from Ramayana, here Ram’s brother Bharat has come to meet Rama along with his three mother and guru vashishth . Green colour has been used in different shades. the use of green colours is the high light of the painting. dark green banana trees have been shown behind the huts.

Rama has been shown in different postures like bowing downwards for touching the feet of guru. folding his hand in front of guru vashishath etc. The composition has balanced there are total 49 figure in this painting. Rama, Laxman their mother’s guru vashishtha have been shown many times some ladies have also been shown sitting in profile pose in the

foreground. almost  9 scenes are painted in a one painting .stream red and white lotus flower has been shown there is no influence in this painting by observing the painting one feels that the painter in successful in depicting the subject matter every character in the painting seems to be familiar to the observes so the subject matter is justified .In this painting 49 human figure have been wonderfully depicted in nine different groups, now it is a collection of National Museum New Delhi.

Human Values –

@ love and devotion amongst family members.@ Forgiveness as a virtue (Rama holds no grudges against kaikeyi)

@ Respect of elders.

@ Obedience to follow the direction of the parents.

@ To be patient to listen to the advice of the people wiser than you (Rama listening attentively to his gurus)

@ Ability to sacrifice your own comforts for others.

@ Do not do things that you will repent later (kaikeyi asks for Rama’s exile and realizes her

mistake letter.

Description in 30 words –

Gumman’s painting from Jaipur, the artist depicts 49 figures in 9 scenes in a one painting. Episodes are taken from Ramayana. light colour scheme has been used to depict the reality.


Subject Mater –

This is a bravery painting, the prince Raja Anirudh Singh hora is sitting on the back of a running horse who is making a power show.

Title , Medium and Artist

This (water colour -tempera) painting of bundi school is painted by a famous painter utkalram in 18th century A.D.in decorative Mughal style.


Raja Aniruddh Singh Hara is seated with sword on a decorated colour galloping horse .he is the holding rains of the horse through both his of  hands  tightly .He scab and sword hilt are painted nicely in the composition of red and cadmium yellow he is dressed in typical Mughal style royal costumes along with turban is painted beautifully  in the mixture of cadmium yellow and brown ,his profile face looks very young ,soft and innocent .his pazama is dark orange colour .He is decorated with verity of armaments . the back ground is painted in dark color in the combination of blue,black and red . the entire composition is focused on Aniruddh Singh hara and his horse.

Both front lags of horse of uplifted in air .it is shown balance on its back legs. The head of the horse is painted smaller than its body which resembles like a decorative wooden toy. The fluttering tail of the horse marks the speed of the racing horse. now its collection of national museum new Delhi.

Description in 30 words – Its tempera painting made by “utklaram” from Bundi sub school of Rajasthan. It depicts a well-dressed young king seated on a decorated and speedy horse. with dark back ground in Mughal style.


Subject matter –

This miniature painting painted by Nooruddin is based on the Rasik Priya poetry of Keshavdas. the most widely illustrated work of medieval Hindi poetry. one day Krishna takes with him on the swing a Gopi other than Radha. this behaviour of Krishna offends Radha whose love foe Krishna will not tolerant any one in between. on this Radha feels betrayed and upset.

Artist, title and medium –

The Rajasthani miniature painting “Krishna on swing” belongs to Bikaner school. It was the painted during 1750-1760 A.D. by the artist Nooruddin. the medium was used water colour (tempera)

Description –

This painting is divided in two parts. the artists seem to have slightly change the episode. the upper parts of the painting relate to the first part of the episode, though with some change. Krishna is alone on the swing. he has his eyes fixed on Radha who is sitting on the porch, or on terrace. Radha too is looking at Krishna. thus, ego of both ends obstructs union and offends both. in the, lower part Krishna is seen sitting inside one bower and Radha inside the other. the eyes and faces of both betray grief and pain. From the action of Gopi’s hands, she appears to assert that being male and the mightier he is expected to have a broader, wider and more liberal mind and a greater responsibility towards Radha.

This painting is nearer to indigenous Rajput consciousness, it reflects folk art elements whereas in its fine draftsmanship technical execution and use of softer tones of colors, lines are thin and sharp. Krishna is wearing a crown and ornaments. At the back of Krishna and Radha there is a round pillow. White color is used for ornaments.

Human Values –

@ love and devotion of the divine couple, as an example for everyone.

@ Eagerness to have a dialogue to resolve the matter,

@ Goodwill amongst friends and followers who can help as mediators to help break the ice and put an end to fight.

Description in 30 words –

Its tempera painting made by “Nuruddin” from Bikaner of Rajasthan. In upper part Krishna seated on a hexagonal swing in front of Radha and lower part Both are seated on red carpet in royal Rajputana dress and style with one female attendant.


Subject matter – chaugan players is a horizontal painting in which two princesses are playing polo whit their four maids.

Artis, title and medium

This Rajasthani miniature painting of jodhpur sub school made by legend artist Dana of in circa 18 century A.D. medium of this painting tempera (water colour) on hand made paper.

Description –

Chughan players is the famous painting of Rajasthani school of miniature painting. It is painted by Dana in 18th century. This painting belongs to Jodhpur sub school. He used tempera on paper (water colour). The whole painting is in horizontal composition. There are six ladies, two of them are queens and rest of the four are their maids. The queen on a right side is sitting on a blue colour horse and queen on let side is sitting on a white colour horse. All the six players are taking sticks in their hands and pulling the polo ball their side. The leg of the horse is giving realistic look to the painting. hence it can be estimated that horse is in running posture. Both of the queens are well decorated with ornaments beautifully they are wearing lehenga, choli and odhani. all the horses are looking beautiful as their saddle arrangement seems to be regal. The horse of queen’s maids is running opposite to each other. all the ladies are wearing beautiful

turban. the eyes of all the players are made very careful as they are looking at an equal angle. This painting shows the Mughal effect. Therefore, artist Dana had shown his talent by giving realistic look to the painting. he had been completely successful in depicting the painting.

Human Values –

@Sports as a source of recreation for a healthy and fulfilling life.

@ Teamwork towards a common goal.

@ Develop a sense of healthy competition to get better in all fields.

Description in 30 words –

Its horizontal tempera painting made by “Dana” from jodhpur sub school of Rajasthan. It shows two princesses with four maids playing polo in two parts of painting. In Light and flat back ground all figures are in Rajputana dress.


Subject Matter – This painting is based on the court dancer of king Sawant Singh of kishangarh named Bani Thani. the king was great devotee of Radha and Krishna, he gave the name to this court dancer.

Artist,Medium and Title –

Nihal Chand of kishangarh has made this painting belongs from Rajasthani school of miniature painting. its miniature painting made on hand paper with water colour in tempera technique at circa 1760 A. D.

Description – This is one of the most well-known paintings of Rajasthani art of kishangarh..Nihal Chand’s  painting Radha of kishangarh  or Bani Thani  which means well turned out. Her face is elongated with high sloping forehead, pointed and long nose and bulging out well cut lips and pointed chin her long black tresses are flowing down from her shoulders

to her waist. long tapering fingers of her right hand are delicately holding the edge of the transparent odhahni. in her left hand there are two lotus buds   of pink and white colour which she is holding with her delicate fingers. odhani is decorated with golden motifs.  her dress and jewellery reflect the taste and the costumes of the contemporary Rajput royalty. she is wearing a white pearl necklace around her neck.

The background is painted in deep blue colour. lines are very sharp and thin .it is believed that Nihal Chand used Bani Thani the court dancer as his model for Radha. her body I painted in peach colour. this painting has beautiful colour scheme. on the whole painting is very beautiful. Description in 30 words –

Its tempera painting made by “Nihalchand” from kishangarh of Rajasthan. He made the beauty of Bani Thani divine and immortal. She is wearing transparent orhani and ornaments, holding lotus buds delicately. Her smile is enigmatic.

Description In 30 words –

Its tempera painting made by “Nihalchand” from kishangarh of Rajasthan. He made the beauty of Bani Thani divine and immortal. She is wearing transparent orhani and ornaments, holding lotus buds delicately. Her smile is enigmatic.        

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