Babur was the first Mughal emperor in India. he was from Timur family who established Mughal rule in India. Though his life was full of struggles yet he had art for love and painting. He visited Herat, a famous centre of Islamic art and culture; where he saw the paintings of Bihzad shah musavir a genius painter of Persian school, known as the ‘Raphael of the east’ that impressed him very much. Babur longed for the familiar artistic splendour of Herat in India but he could not do so due to his political position. He was mostly in the battlefield and died in 1530A.D.


Humayun inherited his father artistic inclination. During the 15 years of exile, he travelled extensively and brought two young artist – mir Sayed Ali of Tabrez and Khawaja Abdul samad of shiraz to India from Iran. the first major manuscript work of Mughal school   Dastan e amir hamza has been started during the reign of Humayun and was completed during Akbar’s reign under the guidance of mir Sayed Ali. this is popularly known as hamza Nama. Humayun died in 1556 A.D.


Akbar at the early age of 13 years had achieved the throne of Delhi in 1556.he was an extraordinarily intelligent, genius, liberal and generous king and a man of character with broad vision though he was illiterate. he became very popular in a very short time. He impressed different religions and showed equal respect to them. he followed the Vaishnav cult. He had started a new religion known as Deen – e – Ilahi the aim of which was to establish co relation and computerization among different religions or to make Suleh Kul.

He built a new capital at Fatehpur Sikri. Khwaja Abdul samad was the director of his art gallery there. The important manuscripts illustrated and translated during Akbar’s reign were Twarikh khandan timuria  Razma- Nama  (Mahabharat), Ramayana (translated in Persian and painted ), Bakat – A – Babri (Biography of Babur) ,Akbar Nama ,  Anwar- A – sunahli (Panchatantra ) , Nal – Damayanti , changez Nama , Zafar Nama  Ain -e- Akbari and Hamza – Nama. Indian artist such as dash want, bash wan and Miskin attained great position in his court, Harbansh Khemka ram.


After the death of his father Akbar Jahangir achieved the throne of Mughal empire in 1650.A.D. he enjoyed peaceful rule till 1627A.D. Due to his father’s administrative talent and his competent wife begum Noor Jahan . Who looked after the political affair of the kingdom, so that he could indulged in his hobbies. Jahangir was a great lover and appreciator of painting. he liked to get albums on the different topics of nature, birds, animals flowers and hunting scenes in realistic manner.

Jahangir court painters combined the three influences Persian, Indian and European. ideas of bird’s eye view perspective and border decoration came from Persia, the Indian influence was profile faces and European influences were seen in shading the draperies and the human anatomy and natural color scheme. Aka Raza, a master of Safavid school and his son Abul Hasan were the chief artist of Jahangir’s court. Ustad Mansoor, Bichattir  , Bishan das , Goverdhan  Manohar , Moh. Murad, Mod. Nadir Balchand Daulat, Madho and Ananta were other genius artist of Jahangir’s court whose combined efforts made  Mughal art reach the highest peak.

Shah Jahan

He was the fifth Mughal Emperor succeeding Jahangir. Shah Jahan was born as Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Khurram in 1592 in Lahore to Jagat Gosain and was brought up by Ruqaiya Begum. He became the emperor in 1628 and served till 1658. He is known for bringing the golden age of Mughal architecture under his reign.

Shah Jahan gained control over Peninsular India by conquering Baglana, then Golconda, and then Bijapur in the 1650s. He changed the capital of the Mughal Empire from Agra to Delhi in 1648.

He also created a new city of Shāhjahānābād near Delhi and fought the Portuguese in 1631to gain back control over Hooghly port in Bengal. Shah Jahan maintained an alliance with the Ottomans and captured the Safavid dynasty’s territories.

The Mughal Architecture was at peak during his regime. He built the Taj Mahal, Jama Masjid, Shalimar Gardens of Lahore, Wazir Khan Mosque, Agra Fort, and Red Fort. His chief consort was Mumtaz Mahal, and his successor was Aurangzeb.

Taj Mahal serves as the tomb for both Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan. He died in 1666 in Agra.


He was the sixth Mughal Emperor succeeding Shah Jahan. Aurangzeb was born as Muḥī al-Dīn Muḥammad in 1618 in Dahod to Mumtaz Mahal. He became the emperor in 1658 and served till 1707.

He was the first Mughal Emperor to claim the throne before the death of the previous ruler and is known for ruling almost the entire Indian subcontinent.

Aurangzeb gained control over the southern states, Bihar and Assam. The Mughal–Maratha Wars were fought between him and Shivaji for Bijapur. He was an imperial bureaucrat. The Hindus represented 31% of the Mughal nobility during his regime.At the same time, he is responsible for the Establishment of stricter Islamic law.

He is known for destroying many temples to wipe out history.He built Moti Masjid, Burj-i Shamali, Badshahi Mosque, Bibi ka Maqbara, Zinat-ul-masjid, and Zafar Mahal. His chief consort was Dilras Banu Begum and his successor was Bahadur Shah I. He died in 1707 in Ahmednagar. He was the last powerful Mughal Emperor.