Que.1-How did the Indian Artists (Painter and Sculptors) contributes National Freedom movement?
Ans – Under the planned propaganda the British were trying to prove that India has no national identity of its own. Bang- Bhang movement brought the new awareness in Indian mind. Aim of the Bengal school was to regenerate the patriotism, to rediscover India’s past and to recollect Indian values in the field of arts by boycotting foreign trends and means. It was national emotion that made Bengal school nationalistic.
Dr. Anand Coomar Swami, the most noted writer of Indian art, a pioneer historian and scholar published a book ‘Art and Swadeshi’ in 1910 which was regarded as the manifesto of art of India. This book gave a plea to return to those Indian sources and ideas which were being demolished by British political fervor. He also recommended the commitment of the Bengal school and efforts of artists for giving a tremendous moral boosting to the Indian freedom movement.
Genius and creative Abanindra Nath did so and put Indian soul before the world. paintings and articles of Devi Prasad Roy Chowdhury printed in journal such as ‘Pravasi , ‘Bharatvarsha’ and shanibarer chitthi ‘ did the same job during freedom movement. In this series, Nandlal Bose copied the paintings of Ajanta and painted his famous line drawing ‘Dandi March of mahatma Gandhi’. he also painted about 60 paintings on handmade paper for Haripura congress on the request of Mahatma Gandhi. These paintings were feast of Indian arts and beautification. These paintings were also notable for their economy of means, boldness, vigour and decorative qualities. Through these paintings, Nandlal Bose combined art with nationalism and became the interpreter of Indian color and its souls.
Abanindranath painted Mother India. Gaganendranath painted a caricature on the massacre of Jalianwalan Bagh which brought hatred among Indians against naked cruelty of British. the personal style developed by noted artists namely Abanindranath Tagore, Nandlal Bose, k. venkatapa, Gaganendranath Thakur, Shailendra Nath dey, Asit Kumar Halder and Devi Prasad Roy Chowdhury etc. saved us from the slavery of expressions and ideas which finally put the foundation of modern trends in the field of art.
Que – Write an essay on the evolution of Indian National Flag and symbolic Significance of its forms and colours.
Which high human values of human life are incorporated in the Indian National flag, which are expressed through its forms and colours? What inspiration do you get on seeing our National flag?
Ans -Many high values of human life are incorporated in the Indian National Flag which are expressed through its forms and colours we get great inspiration on seeing our National Flag. IN 1905 a new awakening came in the youth of Bengal with fresh energy due to the ‘Bang – Bhang ‘movement. From the siccas of this movement and to express Indianess in 1906 Shachindranath Bose and Sukumar designed a layout of first national flag ‘TIRANGA’ for our country.
The flag was consisting of three equal horizontal strips of green yellow and red. in the top green colour strip there were eight white lotuses shown in a row, which represented eight states of that time. on middle yellow strip the word ‘VandeMataram’ was written in dark blue colour in Devanagiri script. The lowest red strip had a white sun in the left and a white crescent moon with a star in the right side. The first national flag of India had been unfurled on august 7,1906 in the green park Calcutta by the Gracious hands of great social reformer and freedom fighter, Shri Sunendranath Banarjee.
Again 1921 second flag was prepared in try colour under the guidance of mahatma Gandhi during the meeting of all India congress party at vijayvada. An enthusiastic youth of Andhra Pradesh, Pingali venkaiyya designed two colored flags and handed over to Gandhi ji which was made in red and green colour that represented two major communities Hindu and Muslims in country. Gandhi ji suggested to add one white strip as a symbol of the rest of Indian communities and put a dark blue charkha in its center as a symbol of progress. it was second national flag of 1921.
On July 22, 1947 finally, a new flag was hoisted which was adopted as a national flag of independent India by constituent Assembly with some corrections in the middle national flag. This tri color flag took the new shape with saffron at the top, white on the middle and green as its lowest band. all the three colors band are of equal size. Dharm chakra popularly known as Ashoka Chakra of Sarnath pillar in navy blue colour has been put instead of charkha. Its length to breadth ratio is 3:2. There are 24 spoks of Dhrm chakra which is the representative of 24 hours of the day. The significance of saffron colour is courage and sacrifice, white symbolizes truth and peace while the green reflects faith and prosperity. Finally circuler motion of dhrm chakra marks continuous cycle progress of nation along the 24 hours of the day.
Que. what is the role of E.V. Havel in saving Indian art?
E.V. Havel was the great European artist who was appointed as the principal of madras (Chennai) art school by britishers. in 1890s the east India company was trying to destroy the rich heritage of Indian art history. After few years E.V. Havel visited all over the country where he met Abanindranath and recognized that Indian art was much better than European art. He motivated and inspired Abanindranath to study the Pahari, Rajasthani, Mughal deccan and Ajanta style and to create a mixture of these.
He wrote 3 books namely ‘THE IDEAL OF INDIAN ART , ‘ THE INDIAN SCULPTURE AND PAINTING AND ‘ THE INDIAN ARCHITECTURE to enhance the beauty and greatness of Indian art over European art .in a summaries way we can say that E.V. Havel indirectly protected the Indian art b his constructive ideas, decisions , inspirations and enthusiastic efforts of patriotic Abanindranath that gave rebirth to Indian art and laid the foundation of state of Bengal.